Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with a high risk of developing premature coronary artery disease that should be diagnosed as early as possible. Several clinical diagnostic criteria for FH are available, with the Dutch Lipid Clinic Criteria (DLCC) being widely used. Information regarding diagnostic performances of the other criteria against the DLCC is scarce. We aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of the Simon-Broom (SB) Register criteria, the US Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths (US MEDPED) and the Japanese FH Management Criteria (JFHMC) compared to the DLCC.
Seven hundered fifty five individuals from specialist clinics and community health screenings with LDL-c level ≥ 4.0 mmol/L were selected and diagnosed as FH using the DLCC, the SB Register criteria, the US MEDPED and the JFHMC. The sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, positive and negative predictive values of individuals screened with the SB register criteria, US MEDPED and JFHMC were assessed against the DLCC.
We found the SB register criteria identified more individuals with FH compared to the US MEDPED and the JFHMC (212 vs. 105 vs. 195; p < 0.001) when assessed against the DLCC. The SB Register criteria, the US MEDPED and the JFHMC had low sensitivity (51.1% vs. 25.3% vs. 47.0% respectively). The SB Register criteria showed better diagnostic performance than the other criteria with 98.8% specificity, 28.6% efficiency value, 98.1% and 62.3% for positive and negative predictive values respectively.
The SB Register criteria appears to be more useful in identifying positive cases leading to genetic testing compared to the JFHMC and US MEDPED in this Asian population. However, further research looking into a suitable diagnosis criterion with high likelihood of positive genetic findings is required in the Asian population including in Malaysia.