Islam SMS, Purnat TD, Phuong NTA, Mwingira U, Schacht K, Fröschl G. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in developing countries: a symposium report. Glob Health. 2014;10(81)
Nijpels, Giel. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes. 2016 Nov 23; Diapedia 3104287123 rev. no. 18. Acess on june 2017 Available from: https://doi.org/10.14496/dia.3104287123.18. Accessed 4 June 2017.
International Diabetes Federation: IDF Atlas 7th edition, 2015. Accessed on June 2017 Avilable at https://www.idf.org/e-library/epidemiology-research/diabetes-atlas/13-diabetes-atlas-seventh-edition.html
Matheus AS, Tannus LR, Cobas RA, Palma CC, Negrato CA, Gomes MB. Impact of diabetes on cardiovascular disease: an update. Int J Hypertens. 2013;653789
Rivellese AA, Riccardi G, Vaccaro O. Cardiovascular risk in women with diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(6):474–80.
Basol G, Barutcuoglu B, Cakir Y, Ozmen B, Parildar Z, Kose T, et al. Diagnosing metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic Turkish patients: comparison of AHA/NHLBI and IDF definitions. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2011;112:253–9.
Nsiah K, Shang VO, Boateng KA, Mensah F. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2015;5(2):133–8.
Yadav D, Mahajan S, Subramanian SK, Bisen PS, Chung CH, Prasad G. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus using NCEP-ATPIII, IDF and WHO definition and its agreement in Gwalior Chambal region of Central India. Glob J Health Sci. 2013;5(6):142–55.
Saloojee S, Burns JK, Motala AA. Very low rates of screening for metabolic syndrome among patients with severe mental illness in Durban, South Africa. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:228.
Morimoto A, Nishimura R, Suzuki N, Matsudaira T, Taki K, Tsujino D, et al. Low prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Japan. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;216(1):69–75.
Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. IDF epidemiology task force consensus group. The metabolic syndrome new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005;366:1059–62.
Executive Summary of the Third Report Of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III). JAMA. 2001;285:2486–97.
Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med. 1998;15:539–53.
The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. [Last accessed on June 2017]. Available at https://www.idf.org/e-library/consensus-statements/60-idfconsensus-worldwide-definitionof-the-metabolic-syndrome.html
Borena W, Edlinger M, Bjørge T, et al. A prospective study on metabolic risk factors and gallbladder cancer in the metabolic syndrome and cancer (me-can) collaborative study. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89368.
Pan A, Keum N, Okereke OI, et al. Bidirectional association between depression and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(5):1171–80.
Thomas G, Sehgal AR, Kashyap SR, Srinivas TR, Kirwan JP, Navaneethan SD. Metabolic syndrome and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(10):2364–73.
Boudreau DM, Malone DC, Raebel MA, Fishman PA, Nichols GA, Feldstein AC, et al. Health care utilization and costs by metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7(4):305–14.
World Health Organization (WHO): Non-Communicable Diseases Country Profile. 2011.
Kengne AP, Limen SN, Sobngwi E, Djouogo CF, Nouedoui C. Metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: comparative prevalence according to two sets of diagnostic criteria in sub-Saharan Africans. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012;4:22.
Abda E, Hamza L, Tessema F, Cheneke W. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among outpatients of Jimma University teaching hospital. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2016;9:47–53.
Woyesa SB, Hirigo AT, Wube TB. Hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Hawassa university comprehensive specialized hospital, south West Ethiopia. BMC Endocr Disord. 2017;17:76.
Tadewos A, Ambachew H, Assegu D. Pattern of metabolic syndrome in relation to gender among type-II DM patients in Hawassa university comprehensive specialized hospital, Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Health Sci J. 2017;11(3)
Smith SR. Importance of diagnosing and treating the metabolic syndrome in reducing cardiovascular risk. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;3:128S–34S.
Galassi A, Reynolds K, He J. Metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006;119(10):812–9.
Han TS, Lean ME. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. JRSM Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;5:2048004016633371.
Pourhoseingholi MA, Vahedi M, Rahimzadeh M. Sample size calculation in medical studies. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2013;6(1):14–7.
Bray GA. Obesity: Basic consideration and clinical approaches. Dis Mon. 1989;35(7):449–537.
Lemogoum D, Seedat YK, Mabadeje AF, Mendis S, Bovet P, Onwubere B, et al. Recommendations for prevention, diagnosis and management of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. J Hypertens. 2003;21(11):1993–2000.
Pokharel DR, Khadka D, Sigdel M, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Nepalese type 2 diabetic patients according to WHO, NCEP-ATP III, IDF and harmonized criteria. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014;13:104.
Foroozanfar Z, Najafipour H, Khanjani N, Bahrampour A, Ebrahimi H. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to different criteria and its associated factors in type 2 diabetic patients in Kerman, Iran. Iran J Med Sci. 2015;40(6):522–5.
Rampal S, Mahadeva S, Guallar E, Bulgiba A, Mohamed R, Rahmat R, et al. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46365.
Bentley-Lewis R, Koruda K, Seely EW. The metabolic syndrome in women. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007;3(10):696–704.
Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos CH, Chrysohoou C, Skoumas J, Tousoulis D, Toutouza M, Toutouzas PK, Stefanadis C. The Impact of lifestyle habits on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Greek adults from the ATTICA study. Am Heart J. 2004;147:106–12.
Callaghan BC, Feldman E, Liu J, et al. Triglycerides and amputation risk in patients with diabetes: ten-year follow-up in the DISTANCE study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(3):635–40. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-0878.
Ahmed HM, Miller M, Nasir K, McEvoy JW, Herrington D, Blumenthal RS, Blaha MJ. Primary low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risks of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and death: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(10):875–83.
Bouguerra R, Ben Selam L, Alberti H, Ben Rayana C, El Atti J, Blouza S, et al. Prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in the Tunisian adults: a population based study. Diabete Metab. 2006;32(3):215–21.
Chowdhury MZI, Anik AM, Farhana Z, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Bangladesh: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:308.
Chakraborty SN, Roy SK, Rahaman MA. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4(4):535–8.
Khanam MA, Qiu C, Lindeboom W, Streatfield PK, Kabir ZN, Wahlin Å. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, associated factors, and impact on survival among older persons in rural Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20259.
Chrousos GP, Gold PW. The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis. JAMA. 1992;267:1244–52.
Charmandari E, Tsigos C, Chrousos G. Endocrinology of the stress response. Annu Rev Physiol. 2005;67:259–84.
Devers MC, Campbell S, Simmons D. Influence of age on the prevalence and components of the metabolic syndrome and the association with cardiovascular disease. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016;4(1):e000195.
Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, Bergmann VK, Grundy MS, Brinkley JL. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(19):1392–8.
Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos D, Weinem M, Stefanadis C. Diet, exercise and the metabolic syndrome. Rev Diabet Stud. 2006;3(3):118–26.