Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, Lip GY, Schotten U, Savelieva I, Ernst S, et al. Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the task force for the management of atrial fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Europace. 2010;12:1360–420.
Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, Ahlsson A, Atar D, Casadei B, et al. 2016 ESC guidelines for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation Developed in collaboration with EACTS. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2017;70:50.
Gage BF, Boechler M, Doggette AL, Fortune G, Flaker GC, Rich MW, et al. Adverse outcomes and predictors of underuse of antithrombotic therapy in medicare beneficiaries with chronic atrial fibrillation. Stroke. 2000;31:822–7.
Wintgens L, Romanov A, Phillips K, Ballesteros G, Swaans M, Folkeringa R, et al. Combined atrial fibrillation ablation and left atrial appendage closure: long-term follow-up from a large multicentre registry. Europace. 2018;20:1783–9.
Phillips KP, Walker DT, Humphries JA. Combined catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation and watchman(R) left atrial appendage occlusion procedures: five-year experience. J Arrhythm. 2016;32:119–26.
Swaans MJ, Post MC, Rensing BJ, Boersma LV. Ablation for atrial fibrillation in combination with left atrial appendage closure: first results of a feasibility study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e002212.
Meier B, Blaauw Y, Khattab AA, Lewalter T, Sievert H, Tondo C, et al. EHRA/EAPCI expert consensus statement on catheter-based left atrial appendage occlusion. EuroIntervention. 2015;10:1109–25.
Newcombe RG. Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: comparison of seven methods. Stat Med. 1998;17:857–72.
Walker DT, Humphries JA, Phillips KP. Combined catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation and watchman((R)) left atrial appendage occlusion procedures: a single Centre experience. J Atr Fibrillation. 2012;5:687.
Swaans MJ, Alipour A, Rensing BJ, Post MC, Boersma LV. Catheter ablation in combination with left atrial appendage closure for atrial fibrillation. J Vis Exp. 2013;72:e3818.
Alipour A, Swaans MJ, van Dijk VF, Balt JC, Post MC, Bosschaert MAR, et al. Ablation for atrial fibrillation combined with left atrial appendage closure. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2015;1:486–95.
Calvo N, Salterain N, Arguedas H, Macias A, Esteban A, Garcia de Yebenes M, et al. Combined catheter ablation and left atrial appendage closure as a hybrid procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2015;17:1533–40.
Romanov A, Pokushalov E, Artemenko S, Yakubov A, Stenin I, Kretov E, et al. Does left atrial appendage closure improve the success of pulmonary vein isolation? Results of a randomized clinical trial. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2015;44:9–16.
Fassini G, Conti S, Moltrasio M, Maltagliati A, Tundo F, Riva S, et al. Concomitant cryoballoon ablation and percutaneous closure of left atrial appendage in patients with atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2016;18:1705–10.
Panikker S, Jarman JW, Virmani R, Kutys R, Haldar S, Lim E, et al. Left atrial appendage electrical isolation and concomitant device occlusion to treat persistent atrial fibrillation: a first-in-human safety, feasibility, and efficacy study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2016;9:e003710.
Pelissero E, Giuggia M, Todaro MC, Trapani G, Giordano B, Senatore G. Combined left atrial appendage percutaneous closure and atrial fibrillation ablation: a single center experience. G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2017;18:11S–7S.
Phillips KP, Pokushalov E, Romanov A, Artemenko S, Folkeringa RJ, Szili-Torok T, et al. Combining watchman left atrial appendage closure and catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: multicentre registry results of feasibility and safety during implant and 30 days follow-up. Europace. 2018:20949–55.
Du X, Chu H, He B, Wang B, Liu J, Feng M, et al. Optimal combination strategy of left atrial appendage closure plus catheter ablation in a single procedure in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2018;29:1089–95.
Lin HJ, Wolf PA, Kelly-Hayes M, Beiser AS, Kase CS, Benjamin EJ, et al. Stroke severity in atrial fibrillation. The Framingham study. Stroke. 1996;27:1760–4.
Holmes DR, Reddy VY, Turi ZG, Doshi SK, Sievert H, Buchbinder M, et al. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2009;374:534–42.
Yerasi C, Lazkani M, Kolluru P, Miryala V, Kim J, Moole H, et al. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of early outcomes after left atrial appendage occlusion. J Interv Cardiol. 2018;31:197–206.
Hylek EM, Evans-Molina C, Shea C, Henault LE, Regan S. Major hemorrhage and tolerability of warfarin in the first year of therapy among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2007;115:2689–96.
Caliskan E, Cox JL, Holmes DR, Meier B, Lakkireddy DR, Falk V, et al. Interventional and surgical occlusion of the left atrial appendage. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2017;14:727–43.
Bando K, Kobayashi J, Hirata M, Satoh T, Niwaya K, Tagusari O, et al. Early and late stroke after mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis: risk factor analysis of a 24-year experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:358–64.
Noelck N, Papak J, Freeman M, Paynter R, Low A, Motu'apuaka M, et al. Effectiveness of left atrial appendage exclusion procedures to reduce the risk of stroke: a systematic review of the evidence. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2016;9:395–405.
Viles-Gonzalez JF, Kar S, Douglas P, Dukkipati S, Feldman T, Horton R, et al. The clinical impact of incomplete left atrial appendage closure with the watchman device in patients with atrial fibrillation: a PROTECT AF (percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation) substudy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:923–9.
Viles-Gonzalez JF, Reddy VY, Petru J, Mraz T, Grossova Z, Kralovec S, et al. Incomplete occlusion of the left atrial appendage with the percutaneous left atrial appendage transcatheter occlusion device is not associated with increased risk of stroke. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2012;33:69–75.
Saw J, Tzikas A, Shakir S, Gafoor S, Omran H, Nielsen-Kudsk JE, et al. Incidence and clinical impact of device-associated Thrombus and Peri-device leak following left atrial appendage closure with the Amplatzer cardiac plug. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2017;10:391–9.
Kanderian AS, Gillinov AM, Pettersson GB, Blackstone E, Klein AL. Success of surgical left atrial appendage closure: assessment by transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:924–9.
Katz ES, Tsiamtsiouris T, Applebaum RM, Schwartzbard A, Tunick PA, Kronzon I. Surgical left atrial appendage ligation is frequently incomplete: a transesophageal echocardiograhic study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:468–71.
Gianni C, Di Biase L, Trivedi C, Mohanty S, Gokoglan Y, Gunes MF, et al. Clinical implications of leaks following left atrial appendage ligation with the LARIAT device. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;9:1051–7.
Bai Y, Xue X, Duenninger E, Muenzel M, Jiang L, Keil T, et al. Real-world survival data of device-related thrombus following left atrial appendage closure: 4-year experience from a single center. Heart Vessel. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00380-019-01364-7.
Fountain RB, Holmes DR, Chandrasekaran K, Packer D, Asirvatham S, Van Tassel R, et al. The PROTECT AF (WATCHMAN left atrial appendage system for embolic PROTECTion in patients with atrial fibrillation) trial. Am Heart J. 2006;151:956–61.
Sick PB, Schuler G, Hauptmann KE, Grube E, Yakubov S, Turi ZG, et al. Initial worldwide experience with the WATCHMAN left atrial appendage system for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:1490–5.
Dukkipati SR, Kar S, Holmes DR, Doshi SK, Swarup V, Gibson DN, et al. Device-related Thrombus after left atrial appendage closure. Circulation. 2018;138:874–85.
Wei Z, Zhang X, Wu H, Xie J, Dai Q, Wang L, et al. A meta-analysis for efficacy and safety evaluation of transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e4382.
Xu H, Xie X, Wang B, Ma S, Wang F. Efficacy and safety of percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a Meta-analysis of contemporary studies. Heart Lung Circ. 2016;25:1107–17.
Fauchier L, Cinaud A, Brigadeau F, Lepillier A, Pierre B, Abbey S, et al. Device-related thrombosis after percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion for atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:1528–36.
Lempereur M, Aminian A, Freixa X, Gafoor S, Kefer J, Tzikas A, et al. Device-associated thrombus formation after left atrial appendage occlusion: a systematic review of events reported with the watchman, the Amplatzer cardiac plug and the amulet. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2017;90:E111–21.
Verma A, Jiang CY, Betts TR, Chen J, Deisenhofer I, Mantovan R, et al. Approaches to catheter ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1812–22.
Afzal MR, Kanmanthareddy A, Earnest M, Reddy M, Atkins D, Bommana S, et al. Impact of left atrial appendage exclusion using an epicardial ligation system (LARIAT) on atrial fibrillation burden in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Heart Rhythm. 2015;12:52–9.
Friedman DJ, Black-Maier EW, Barnett AS, Pokorney SD, Al-Khatib SM, Jackson KP, et al. Left atrial appendage electrical isolation for treatment of recurrent atrial fibrillation: a Meta-analysis. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2018;4:112–20.
Reddy VY, Akehurst RL, Amorosi SL, Gavaghan MB, Hertz DS, Holmes DR. Cost-effectiveness of left atrial appendage closure with the watchman device compared with warfarin or non-vitamin k antagonist oral anticoagulants for secondary prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Stroke. 2018;49:1464–70.
Karasoy D, Gislason GH, Hansen J, Johannessen A, Kober L, Hvidtfeldt M, et al. Oral anticoagulation therapy after radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation and the risk of thromboembolism and serious bleeding: long-term follow-up in nationwide cohort of Denmark. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:307–4a.