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  1. Many patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) are discharged without a known aetiology for their clinical presentation. This study sought to assess the effect of this...

    Authors: T. F. S. Pustjens, A. Meerman, N. P. A. Vranken, A. W. Ruiters, B. Gho, M. Stein, M. Ilhan, L. Veenstra, P. Winkler, Á. Lux, S. Rasoul and A. W. J. van ‘t Hof

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:357

    Content type: Research

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  2. Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway of tryptophan (Trp) degradation, is modulated by inflammation, and is regarded as a key molecule driving immunotolera...

    Authors: Nattawut Wongpraparut, Ploy Pengchata, Sudarat Piyophirapong, Pariya Panchavinnin, Rungtiwa Pongakasira, Noppadol Arechep, Kanda Kasetsinsombat and Kittipong Maneechotesuwan

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:353

    Content type: Research article

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  3. We examined the relationship between ratios of select biomarkers of kidney and liver function on all-cause and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, both in isolation, and in combination with metabolic syndr...

    Authors: Akinkunle Oye-Somefun, Jennifer L. Kuk and Chris I. Ardern

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:352

    Content type: Research

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  4. CVD is the leading cause of death in T2DM patients. However, few biomarkers have been identified to detect and diagnose CVD in the early stage of T2DM. The aim of our study was to identify the important mRNAs,...

    Authors: Zhiyuan Fan, Wenjuan Peng, Zhiwen Wang, Ling Zhang and Kuo Liu

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:351

    Content type: Research

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  5. Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:349

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2020 20:380

  6. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) reduces the risk of the composite renal endpoint and weakens the progressive decline in renal function in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). However, a ...

    Authors: Masaki Nakagaito, Teruhiko Imamura, Shuji Joho, Ryuichi Ushijima, Makiko Nakamura and Koichiro Kinugawa

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:347

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The relationship between the characteristics of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) leads and subclinical cardiac perforations remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of subclinica...

    Authors: Yeong-Min Lim, Jae-Sun Uhm, Min Kim, In-Soo Kim, Moo-Nyun Jin, Hee Tae Yu, Tae-Hoon Kim, Hye-Jeong Lee, Young-Jin Kim, Boyoung Joung, Hui-Nam Pak and Moon-Hyoung Lee

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:346

    Content type: Research

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  8. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aimed to explore the frequency and impact of AF on cli...

    Authors: Lijiao Yang, Nan Ye, Guoqin Wang, Weijing Bian, Fengbo Xu, Dong Zhao, Jing Liu, Yongchen Hao, Jun Liu, Na Yang and Hong Cheng

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:345

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Myocardial infarction (MI) contributes to high mortality and morbidity and can also accelerate atherosclerosis, thus inducing recurrent event due to status changing of coronary artery walls or plaques. The res...

    Authors: Qiang Zhang, Yue Zheng, Meng Ning and Tong Li

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:344

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations are associated with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus (DM). Few studies focused on the relationship between serum FFA levels and coronary artery calcificat...

    Authors: Yangxun Xin, Junfeng Zhang, Yuqi Fan and Changqian Wang

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:343

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Health systems are increasingly using standardized social needs screening and response protocols including the Protocol for Responding to and Assessing Patients’ Risks, Assets, and Experiences (PRAPARE) to imp...

    Authors: Connor Drake, Tyler Lian, Justin G. Trogdon, David Edelman, Howard Eisenson, Morris Weinberger, Kristin Reiter and Christopher M. Shea

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Catheter ablation is widely used in atrial fibrillation (AF) management. In this study, we are aimed to investigate the incidence of postprocedural cognitive decline in a larger population undergoing AF ablati...

    Authors: Jing Zhang, Shi-Jun Xia, Xin Du, Chao Jiang, Yi-Wei Lai, Yu-Feng Wang, Zhao-Xu Jia, Liu He, Ri-Bo Tang, Jian-Zeng Dong and Chang-Sheng Ma

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:341

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Mobile health-based individualized interventions have shown potential effects in managing cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to assess whether or not mHealth based individualized interventions delive...

    Authors: Yuling Chen, Meihua Ji, Ying Wu, Ying Deng, Fangqin Wu and Yating Lu

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:340

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. The epidemiology of valvular heart disease (VHD) has changed markedly over the last 50 years worldwide, and the prevalence and features of VHD in China are unknown. The objective of this study was to investiga...

    Authors: Ying Yang, Zengwu Wang, Zuo Chen, Xin Wang, Linfeng Zhang, Suning Li, Congyi Zheng, Yuting Kang, Linlin Jiang, Zhenhui Zhu and Runlin Gao

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:339

    Content type: Research

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  15. Early adoption of a healthy lifestyle has positive effects on cardiovascular health (CVH) in adulthood. In this study, we aimed to assess CVH metrics in a cohort of healthy teenagers with focus on differences ...

    Authors: C. Hochmayr, J. P. Ndayisaba, N. Gande, A. Staudt, B. Bernar, K. Stock, R. Geiger, M. Knoflach and U. Kiechl-Kohlendorfer

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:338

    Content type: Research

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  16. Predictive value of creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) among myocardial infarction (MI) patients has rarely been reported. We aim to evaluate the predictive value of C...

    Authors: Wen Wei, Lingyu Zhang, Yunhan Zhang, Ronghui Tang, Miao Zhao, Zhidong Huang, Jin Liu, Danyuan Xu, Yibo He, Bo Wang, Haozhang Huang, Qiang Li, Mengfei Lin, Yong Liu, Kaihong Chen and Shiqun Chen

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:337

    Content type: Research

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  17. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Several metabolic risk factors contribute to the development of CVD. Informal workers such as waste p...

    Authors: Felix Made, Engelbert A. Nonterah, Nonhlanhla Tlotleng, Vusi Ntlebi and Nisha Naicker

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:336

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Isolated splenic artery dissection (SAD) is extremely rare, life-threatening, and particularly difficult to diagnose. Moreover, SAD presenting as digestive hemorrhage has not been reported.

    Authors: Jianjun Jiang, Yang Liu and Xiangjiu Ding

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:335

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Previous studies have validated the capability of SYNTAX score (SS) and clinical SYNTAX score (CSS) in the prediction of clinical outcomes in patients who have undergone PCI; however, studies on comparison of ...

    Authors: Xiao-Qin Li, Chun Yin, Xiao-Li Li, Wen-Li Wu and Kun Cui

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:334

    Content type: Research

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  20. Recently, we face a surge in the fast-forward Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with nearly 170 million confirmed cases and almost 3.5 million confirmed deaths at the end of May 2021. Obesity, also ...

    Authors: Jacek Bil and Olga Możeńska

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:332

    Content type: Commentary

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  21. It is widely recognized that metabolic disorder is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is known that hypoxia-induced elevated pulmonary artery pressure in mice returns to normal pressure during reo...

    Authors: Koichi Sugimoto, Tetsuro Yokokawa, Tomofumi Misaka, Takashi Kaneshiro, Akiomi Yoshihisa, Kazuhiko Nakazato and Yasuchika Takeishi

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research

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  22. Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome and affects millions of people all over the world. HF occurs when the cardiac overload and injury, which is a worldwide complaint. The aim of this study ...

    Authors: Vijayakrishna Kolur, Basavaraj Vastrad, Chanabasayya Vastrad, Shivakumar Kotturshetti and Anandkumar Tengli

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:329

    Content type: Research

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  23. Little is known about the clinical value of Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7), a cellular senescence marker, in an elderly general population with multiple co-morbidities and high prevalenc...

    Authors: Jennifer M. T. A. Meessen, Giulia Cesaroni, Gian F. Mureddu, Alessandro Boccanelli, Ursula-Henrike Wienhues-Thelen, Peter Kastner, Luisa Ojeda-Fernandez, Deborah Novelli, Gianfranco Bazzoni, Maurizio Mangiavacchi, Nera Agabiti, Serge Masson, Lidia Staszewsky and Roberto Latini

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:328

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The relative association between cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension, established CV disease (CVD), and susceptibility to CV complications or mortality in COVID-19 remains unclear.

    Authors: Kevin O’Gallagher, Anthony Shek, Daniel M. Bean, Rebecca Bendayan, Alexandros Papachristidis, James T. H. Teo, Richard J. B. Dobson, Ajay M. Shah and Rosita Zakeri

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:327

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) have shown superiority in the endovascular treatment of short femoropopliteal artery disease. Few studies have focused on outcomes in long lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the ...

    Authors: Xiaoxi Yu, Xin Zhang, Zhichao Lai, Jiang Shao, Rong Zeng, Wei Ye, Yuexin Chen, Bihui Zhang, Bo Ma, Wenteng Cao, Xiaolong Liu, Jinghui Yuan, Yuehong Zheng, Min Yang, Zhidong Ye and Bao Liu

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:326

    Content type: Research

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  26. This study was performed to investigate the clinical significance of combined evaluation of both coronary artery disease (CAD) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) for prediction of major adverse ...

    Authors: Hang Liao, Huay Cheem Tan, Ziqiong Wang, Xiaoping Chen, Yong He and Sen He

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:325

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has been revolutionized by angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI). ARNI has been shown to significantly reduce morbidity and mortalit...

    Authors: Wipharak Rattanavipanon, Thanyaluck Sotananusak, Fairus Yamaae, Arisa Chandrsawang, Pitchapa Kaewkan, Surakit Nathisuwan and Teerapat Yingchoncharoen

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research

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  28. Self-expanding nitinol stent (SENS) implantation is commonly oversized in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), and leads to chronic outward force (COF) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). This study aimed to inves...

    Authors: Hu Li, Seung-Woon Rha, Byoung Geol Choi, Se Yeon Choi, Sang Ki Moon, Won Young Jang, Woohyeun Kim, Ji Hun Ahn, Sang-Ho Park, Woong Gil Choi, Rui Feng Yang, Wen Wei Bai, Cheol Ung Choi, Yang gi Ryu, Man Jong Baek and Dong Joo Oh

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:323

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is becoming more prevalent in pregnant women though not much data is available for pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Foetoplacental vascular end...

    Authors: Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag, Godwill Azeh Engwa, Charles Businge, Mziwohlanga Mdondolo, Magdevy Pajaro Medina and Nandu Goswami

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:322

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality from birth defects. In adult CHD patients with successful surgical repair, cardiac complications including heart failure develop at late stage, ...

    Authors: Dongchen Fan, Shuchao Pang, Jing Chen, Jiping Shan, Qianjin Cheng and Bo Yan

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:321

    Content type: Research article

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  31. There appears to be an inequality in the risk of cardio-metabolic disease between those from a South Asian (SA) background when compared to those of White Europeans (WE) descendance, however, this association ...

    Authors: Munerah Almulhem, Joht Singh Chandan, Krishna Gokhale, Nicola J. Adderley, Rasiah Thayakaran, Kamlesh Khunti, Abd A. Tahrani, Wasim Hanif and Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Since the early descriptions of large series of accessory atrioventricular pathway ablations in adults and adolescents over 20 years ago, there have been limited published reports based on more recent experien...

    Authors: Charlie Young, Annie Kwan, Lisa Yepez, Meghan McCarty, Amanda Chan, Dora Hsu, Jennifer Han, Taresh Taneja, Shirley Park, Robert Hayward and Taylor I. Liu

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:319

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Recent trials have revealed that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are effective against hyperglycemia and also reduce micro- and macro-vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabete...

    Authors: Sepehr Gohari, Tara Reshadmanesh, Hadi Khodabandehloo, Mojtaba Fathi, Hassan Ahangar, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Samin Ghanbari, Mohsen Dadashi, Muhammad Javad Muhammadi, Sheida Gohari and Saeid Ghaffari

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:318

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Arterial calcification, the hallmark of arteriosclerosis, has a widespread distribution in the human body with only moderate correlation among sites. Hitherto, a single measure capturing the systemic burden of...

    Authors: Lieke M. Kuiper, M. Kamran Ikram, Maryam Kavousi, Meike W. Vernooij, M. Arfan Ikram and Daniel Bos

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:317

    Content type: Research article

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  35. There are relatively limited data regarding real-world outcomes in very old patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) receiving different therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to perform analysis of long-ter...

    Authors: Deshan Yuan, Sida Jia, Ce Zhang, Lin Jiang, Lianjun Xu, Yin Zhang, Jingjing Xu, Ru Liu, Bo Xu, Rutai Hui, Runlin Gao, Zhan Gao, Lei Song and Jinqing Yuan

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:316

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Our goal was to determine the accuracy of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) compared with that of computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative evaluation for transcatheter aortic valve re...

    Authors: Peng Ding, Chennian Xu, Yang Liu, Xin Meng, Ping Jin, Jiayou Tang, Lanlan Li, Yanyan Ma and Jian Yang

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Mitral valve (MV) surgery has traditionally been performed by conventional sternotomy (CS), but more recently minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has become another treatment option. The aim of this study is to c...

    Authors: Ayse Cetinkaya, Anna Geier, Karin Bramlage, Stefan Hein, Peter Bramlage, Markus Schönburg, Yeong-Hoon Choi and Manfred Richter

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:314

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Due to its low incidence and diverse manifestations, paradoxical embolism (PDE) is still under-reported and is not routinely considered in differential diagnoses. Concomitant acute myocardial infarction (AMI) ...

    Authors: Weiwei Chen, Zhixi Yu, Siming Li, Kenji Wagatsuma, Beibei Du and Ping Yang

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:313

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders causing long-term damage to the cardiovascular system which remains asymptomatic among diabetic patients. An electrocardiograph is a simple and first-line to...

    Authors: Deriba A. Bedane, Samuel Tadesse, Moyeta Bariso, Wondu Reta and Gaddisa Desu

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research

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  40. The present study investigated the potential correlation between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (non-HDL-C/HDL) and the formation of coronary collateral cir...

    Authors: Ya Li, Xin Chen, Shu Li, Yulin Ma, Jialing Li, Mingying Lin and Jing Wan

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:311

    Content type: Research

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  41. Hypertensive crisis is an urgent/emergency condition. Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in resistant hypertension has been thoroughly examined, information regarding the risk factors and prevalence of hyp...

    Authors: Sittichai Khamsai, Apichart Chootrakool, Panita Limpawattana, Jarin Chindaprasirt, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Verajit Chotmongkol, Songkwan Silaruks, Vichai Senthong, Yuwares Sittichanbuncha, Bundit Sawunyavisuth and Kittisak Sawanyawisuth

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:310

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Authors: Ioannis S. Vizirianakis, Fani Chatzopoulou, Andreas S. Papazoglou, Efstratios Karagiannidis, Georgios Sofdis, Nikolaos Stalikas, Christos Stefopoulos, Konstantinos A. Kyritsis, Nikolaos Mittas, Nikoleta F. Theodoroula, Aggeliki Lampri, Eleni Mezarli, Anastasios Kartas, Dimitrios Chatzidimitriou, Anna Papa-Konidari, Eleftherios Angelis…

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:309

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:284

  43. Circular RNA (circRNA) have been reported to play important roles in cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction and heart failure. However, the role of circRNA in atrial fibrillation (AF) has rare...

    Authors: Na Wu, Chengying Li, Bin Xu, Ying Xiang, Xiaoyue Jia, Zhiquan Yuan, Long Wu, Li Zhong and Yafei Li

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Temporal trends in clinical composition and outcome in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are largely unknown, despite considerable advances in heart failure management. We set out to study clinical characteristics ...

    Authors: Helen Sjöland, Jonas Silverdal, Entela Bollano, Aldina Pivodic, Ulf Dahlström and Michael Fu

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:307

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Conventional fluoroscopy guided catheter ablation (CA) is an established treatment option for ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). However, with the complex nature of most procedures, patients and staff bare an incr...

    Authors: Matevž Jan, David Žižek, Tine Prolič Kalinšek, Dimitrij Kuhelj, Primož Trunk, Tadeja Kolar, Juš Kšela, Martin Rauber and Mehmet Yazici

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:306

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. The primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are a family of highly malignant tumors with a multidirectional differential potential. The tumors are characterized by aggressive small round tumor cells that orig...

    Authors: Jingjing Wang, Jing Li, Xiao Zhang, Xiaobo Zhang and Yueyong Xiao

    Citation: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2021 21:305

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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