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Table 3 Multivariable adjusted associations between health risk factors and left ventricular remodelling and left ventricular hypertrophy in adults

From: Obesity, hypertension, and tobacco use associated with left ventricular remodeling and hypertrophy in South African women: Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort

Models with →  LV remodelling
n = 19
LVH (all patterns)
n = 44
Eccentric LVH
n = 33
Concentric LVH
n = 11
OR (95%CI) p value OR (95%CI) p value OR (95%CI) p value OR (95%CI) p value
Age 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 0.77 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.76 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.37 1.03 (0.96–1.10) 0.46
MVPA 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.33 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.29 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.37 1.00 (1.00–1.001) 0.62
Sedentary behaviour 1.00 (1.00–1.001) 0.42 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.47 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.25 1.00 (1.00–1.001) 0.49
Obesitya 0.58 (0.19–1.73) 0.33 2.54 (1.07–6.02) 0.03* 3.46 (1.28–9.37) 0.02* 1.03 (0.24–4.32) 0.97
Hypertensionb 3.44 (0.80–14.82) 0.09 3.39 (1.08–10.62) 0.04* 3.83 (1.10–13.31) 0.03 1.23 (0.17–8.96) 0.84
T2DMc 1.92 (0.47–7.78) 0.36 1.05 (0.29–3.86) 0.94 0.82 (0.18–3.72) 0.79 1.41 (0.22–9.21) 0.72
High cholesterolc 4.56 (0.50–41.24) 0.18 1.33 (0.39–4.55) 0.65 1.61 (0.42–6.20) 0.49 0.73 (1.00–5.40) 0.76
Tobaccod usec 1.14 (0.34–3.84) 0.83 1.87 (0.73–4.80) 0.192 0.84 (0.29–2.41) 0.75 5.06 (1.24–20.69) 0.02*
Alcohol usec 1.33 (0.44–3.99) 0.61 1.22 (0.51–2.94) 0.656 0.74 (0.29–1.92) 0.54 3.38 (0.68–16.79) 0.14
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, MVPA moderate-vigorous physical activity, LV left ventricular, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  2. aAs defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 according to the WHO guidelines [40].
  3. bHypertension as defined by the ISH guidelines [37].
  4. cSelf-reported.
  5. dSmoking and smokeless tobacco.
  6. *p < 0.05 was considered significant indicated by values in bold