Skip to main content

Table 2 Sociodemographic characteristics of the women adults with and without left ventricular hypertrophy

From: Obesity, hypertension, and tobacco use associated with left ventricular remodeling and hypertrophy in South African women: Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort

  With LVH Without LVH p value
n 44 79
Age (years), minimum and maximum 48 (29,66) 29 (28,68) 0.04
Anthropometry
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 34.9 (28.9–40.4) 30.3 (25.9–34.6) 0.01
  Underweighta (BMI ≤ 18), n (%) 1 (2.3) 0
  Normala (BMI: 18–25) n (%) 5 (11.4) 13 (16.5) 0.10
  Overweighta (BMI: 25–30), n (%) 6 (13.6) 25 (31.60 0.03
  Obesea (BMI ≥ 30), n (%) 32 (72.7) 41 (51.9) 0.04
Blood pressure
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 119 (108–129) 111 (104–123) 0.16
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 74 (72–90) 79 (73–84) 0.99
 Heart rate (bpm) 56 (65–81) 74 (66–82) 0.55
  Elevated BP*, n (%) 3 (6.8) 4 (5.1) 0.70
  Hypertension*, n (%) 23 (52.3) 21 (26.6) 0.01
  Of which, on medication 16 (69.6) 17 (80.9) 0.001
Medical history
 Previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus, n (%) 3 (6.8) 0 0.09
 Previously diagnosed high cholesterol, n (%) 6 (13.6) 9 (11.4) 0.48
 Previous heart disease, n (%) 1 (2.3) 0
Tobacco & alcohol use, n (%)
 Ever used tobacco (smoke and/or smokeless) 13 (29.5) 15 (19.0) 0.19
  Of which, currently smoke tobacco 4 (9.1) 5 (6.30 0.72
  Of which, currently use smokeless tobacco 8 (18.2) 10 (12.7) 0.43
  Of which, previously smoked tobacco 1 (2.5) 0 0.35
 Ever used alcohol 23 (52.3) 45 (57.0) 0.71
  Of which, have ≥ 6 drinks/day
   Never 11 (47.8) 17 (37.8) 0.04
   Infrequently (monthly or less) 10 (43.5) 25 (55.6) 0.04
   Frequently (weekly or daily) 2 (8.7) 3 (6.7) 0.06
Physical activity
 Moderate-vigorous physical activity (min/week) 600 (60–1823) 510 (180–1215)  
 Sedentary behaviour (min/week) 509 (19–960) 720 (210–1320)  
  1. Data presented as median and interquartile range, unless otherwise indicated.
  2. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, bpm beats per minute, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy.
  3. p < 0.05 was considered significant indicated by values in bold
  4. *Hypertension and elevated BP categories defined according to the ISH guidelines [37].
  5. aBMI categories classifies according to the WHO guidelines [40].