Anter E, Jessup M, Callans DJ. Atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Treatment Considerations for a Dual Epidemic 2009;119(18):2516–2525.
Malhi N, Hawkins NM, Andrade JG, Krahn AD, Deyell MW. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2018;29(7):1049–58.
Verma A, Kalman JM, Callans DJ. Treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Circulation. 2017;135(16):1547–63.
Byrne M, Kaye DM, Power J. The synergism between atrial fibrillation and heart failure. J Card Fail. 2008;14(4):320–6.
Wasmund SL, Li JM, Page RL, Joglar JA, Kowal RC, Smith ML, et al. Effect of atrial fibrillation and an irregular ventricular response on sympathetic nerve activity in human subjects. Circulation. 2003;107(15):2011–5.
Gertz ZM, Raina A, Saghy L, Zado ES, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE, et al. Evidence of atrial functional mitral regurgitation due to atrial fibrillation: reversal with arrhythmia control. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(14):1474–81.
Dandamudi G, Rampurwala AY, Mahenthiran J, Miller JM, Das MK. Persistent left ventricular dilatation in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy patients after appropriate treatment and normalization of ejection fraction. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5(8):1111–4.
Shinbane JS, Wood MA, Jensen DN, Ellenbogen KA, Fitzpatrick AP, Scheinman MM. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy: a review of animal models and clinical studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29(4):709–15.
The AFFIRM Investigators. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(23):1825–33.
Pedersen OD, Bagger H, Keller N, Marchant B, Køber L, Torp-Pedersen C. Efficacy of Dofetilide in the treatment of atrial fibrillation-flutter in patients with reduced left ventricular function. A Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality ON Dofetilide (DIAMOND) Substudy 2001;104(3):292–296.
Roy D, Talajic M, Nattel S, Wyse DG, Dorian P, Lee KL, et al. Rhythm control versus rate control for atrial fibrillation and heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(25):2667–77.
Roden DM. Risks and benefits of antiarrhythmic therapy. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(12):785–91.
Zimetbaum P. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy for atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2012;125(2):381–9.
Haegeli LM, Calkins H. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: an update. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(36):2454–9.
Morillo CA, Verma A, Connolly SJ, et al. Radiofrequency ablation vs antiarrhythmic drugs as first-line treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (raaft-2): a randomized trial. JAMA. 2014;311(7):692–700.
Wilber DJ, Pappone C, Neuzil P, et al. Comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy and radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;303(4):333–40.
Essebag V, Wylie JV, Josephson ME. Effectiveness of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(2):130–1.
Amit G, Nyong J, Morillo CA. Efficacy of catheter ablation for nonparoxysmal atrial fibrillation. JAMA Cardiol. 2017;2(7):812–3.
Samuel M, Avgil Tsadok M, Joza J, Behlouli H, Verma A, Essebag V, et al. Catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation is associated with a reduction in health care resource utilization. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2017;28(7):733–41.
Samuel M, Almohammadi M, Tsadok MA, Joza J, Jackevicius CA, Koh M, et al. Population-based evaluation of major adverse events after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2017;3(12):1425–33.
Ullah W, Ling L-H, Prabhu S, Lee G, Kistler P, Finlay MC, et al. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure: impact of maintaining sinus rhythm on heart failure status and long-term rates of stroke and death. EP Europace. 2016;18(5):679–86.
Chen MS, Marrouche NF, Khaykin Y, Gillinov AM, Wazni O, Martin DO, et al. Pulmonary vein isolation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation in patients with impaired systolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(6):1004–9.
Hsu LF, Jais P, Sanders P, Garrigue S, Hocini M, Sacher F, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(23):2373–83.
Sacher F, Corcuff JB, Schraub P, Le Bouffos V, Georges A, Jones SO, et al. Chronic atrial fibrillation ablation impact on endocrine and mechanical cardiac functions. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(10):1290–5.
Dagres N, Varounis C, Gaspar T, Piorkowski C, Eitel C, Iliodromitis EK, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Card Fail. 2011;17(11):964–70.
January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, Calkins H, Cigarroa JE, Cleveland JC Jr, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(21):e1–76.
Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, Ahlsson A, Atar D, Casadei B, et al. 2016 ESC guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(38):2893–962.
Di Biase L, Mohanty P, Mohanty S, Santangeli P, Trivedi C, Lakkireddy D, et al. Ablation versus amiodarone for treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation in patients with congestive heart failure and an implanted device: results from the AATAC multicenter randomized trial. Circulation. 2016;133(17):1637–44.
Hunter RJ, Berriman TJ, Diab I, Kamdar R, Richmond L, Baker V, et al. A randomized controlled trial of catheter ablation versus medical treatment of atrial fibrillation in heart failure (the CAMTAF trial). Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014;7(1):31–8.
Jones DG, Haldar SK, Hussain W, Sharma R, Francis DP, Rahman-Haley SL, et al. A randomized trial to assess catheter ablation versus rate control in the management of persistent atrial fibrillation in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(18):1894–903.
Khan MN, Jais P, Cummings J, Di Biase L, Sanders P, Martin DO, et al. Pulmonary-vein isolation for atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(17):1778–85.
MacDonald MR, Connelly DT, Hawkins NM, Steedman T, Payne J, Shaw M, et al. Radiofrequency ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation in patients with advanced heart failure and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomised controlled trial. Heart. 2011;97(9):740–7.
Marrouche NF, Brachmann J, Andresen D, Siebels J, Boersma L, Jordaens L, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(5):417–27.
Prabhu S, Taylor AJ, Costello BT, Kaye DM, McLellan AJA, Voskoboinik A, et al. Catheter ablation versus medical rate control in atrial fibrillation and systolic dysfunction: the CAMERA-MRI study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(16):1949–61.
Calkins H, Hindricks G, Cappato R, Kim YH, Saad EB, Aguinaga L, et al. 2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2017;14(10):e275–444.
Ionescu-Ittu R, Abrahamowicz M, Jackevicius CA, Essebag V, Eisenberg MJ, Wynant W, et al. Comparative effectiveness of rhythm control vs rate control drug treatment effect on mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(13):997–1004.
Healey JS, Oldgren J, Ezekowitz M, Zhu J, Pais P, Wang J, et al. Occurrence of death and stroke in patients in 47 countries 1 year after presenting with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study. Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1161–9.
Odutayo A, Wong CX, Hsiao AJ, Hopewell S, Altman DG, Emdin CA. Atrial fibrillation and risks of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and death: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016;354.
Sartipy U, Dahlström U, Fu M, Lund LH. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure with preserved, mid-range, and reduced ejection fraction. JACC Heart Fail. 2017;5(8):565–74.
Al Halabi S, Qintar M, Hussein A, Alraies MC, Jones DG, Wong T, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in heart failure patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2015;1(3):200–9.
Shelton RJ, Clark AL, Goode K, Rigby AS, Houghton T, Kaye GC, et al. A randomised, controlled study of rate versus rhythm control in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and heart failure: (CAFÉ-II study). Heart. 2009;95(11):924–30.
Brignole M, Menozzi C, Gasparini M, Bongiorni MG, Botto GL, Ometto R, et al. An evaluation of the strategy of maintenance of sinus rhythm by antiarrhythmic drug therapy after ablation and pacing therapy in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2002;23(11):892–900.
Hohnloser SH, Kuck KH, Lilienthal J. Rhythm or rate control in atrial fibrillation--pharmacological intervention in atrial fibrillation (PIAF): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000;356(9244):1789–94.
Sethi NJ, Feinberg J, Nielsen EE, Safi S, Gluud C, Jakobsen JC. The effects of rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter: a systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial sequential analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186856.
Jais P, Cauchemez B, Macle L, Daoud E, Khairy P, Subbiah R, et al. Catheter ablation versus antiarrhythmic drugs for atrial fibrillation: the A4 study. Circulation. 2008;118(24):2498–505.
Anand IS, Florea VG, Fisher L. Surrogate end points in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(9):1414–21.
Katsi V, Georgiopoulos G, Laina A, Koutli E, Parissis J, Tsioufis C, et al. Left ventricular ejection fraction as therapeutic target: is it the ideal marker? Heart Fail Rev. 2017;22(6):641–55.
Kotecha D, Piccini JP. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: what should we do? Eur Heart J. 2015;36(46):3250–7.
Nattel S. Therapeutic implications of atrial fibrillation mechanisms: can mechanistic insights be used to improve AF management? Cardiovasc Res. 2002;54(2):347–60.
Tilz RR, Rillig A, Thum AM, Arya A, Wohlmuth P, Metzner A, et al. Catheter ablation of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation: 5-year outcomes of the Hamburg sequential ablation strategy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(19):1921–9.
Siontis KC, Ioannidis JPA, Katritsis GD, Noseworthy PA, Packer DL, Hummel JD, et al. Radiofrequency ablation versus antiarrhythmic drug therapy for atrial fibrillation. Meta-Analysis of Quality of Life, Morbidity, and Mortality 2016;2(2):170–180.
Zhang Y, Guallar E, Blasco-Colmenares E, Butcher B, Norgard S, Nauffal V, et al. Changes in follow-up left ventricular ejection fraction associated with outcomes in primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy device recipients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(5):524–31.
Guazzi M, Dickstein K, Vicenzi M, Arena R. Six-minute walk test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure: a comparative analysis on clinical and prognostic insights. Circ Heart Fail. 2009;2(6):549–55.