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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patients with type 1 diabetes before and after exercise training

From: Effects of non-supervised low intensity aerobic excise training on the microvascular endothelial function of patients with type 1 diabetes: a non-pharmacological interventional study

Characteristics Before training After training P value
(n = 22) (n = 22)
Body weight (kg) 68.5 ± 15.3 67.7 ± 14.7* 0.0247
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 4.3 23.9 ± 4.1* 0.0259
Systolic arterial pressure (mmHg) 124.1 ± 19.7 123.2 ± 18.5 0.6753
Diastolic arterial pressure (mmHg) 79.3 ± 12.3 76.1 ± 14.0 0.0641
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 93.7 ± 14.8 92.9 ± 14.7 0.6004
Heart rate (bpm) 74.1 ± 11.1 77.6 ± 12.2 0.1398
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.88 ± 0.17 0.82 ± 0.19 0.1671
Urea (mg/dl) 31.5 ± 9.6 33.4 ± 11.2 0.3362
Uric acid (mg/dl) 4.4 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.5* 0.0198
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 171.7 ± 75.2 169.0 ± 93.7 0.9076
Postprandial plasma glucose (mg/dl) 217.9 ± 79.5 221.5 ± 103.5 0.8940
HbA1c (%) 8.6 ± 1.7 9.0 ± 2.4 0.3278
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 176.6 ± 30.2 191.1 ± 53.7 0.0966
HDL-C (mg/dl) 55.2 ± 16.5 57.3 ± 20.7 0.4217
LDL-C (mg/dl) 99.5 ± 6.1 111.1 ± 10.1 0.1762
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 109.5 ± 72.5 113.3 ± 82.9 0.8234
Albumin (g/dl) 4.2 ± 0.42 4.1 ± 0.5 0.2639
AST (U/L) 23.3 ± 9.9 20.3 ± 6.1 0.1966
ALT (U/L) 19.7 ± 7.6 19.9 ± 10.7 0.9122
GGT (IU/L) 126.7 ± 51.6 147.5 ± 81.6 0.1867
CK-MM (U/L) 20.25 ± 2.0 19.4 ± 3.1 0.7992
hs-CRP (mg/dL) 0.37 ± 0.76 0.29 ± 0.32 0.5685
Interleukin-6 (ng/ml) 8.5 ± 3.1 4.5 ± 2.6* 0.0052
  1. The results are presented as the means ± SEM
  2. P values were estimated using two-tailed paired Student’s t tests; bold values represent statistically significant differences
  3. *P < 0.05 vs. values before training
  4. ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate transaminase; CK-MM: creatine kinase-MM; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol