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Table 3 Age-adjusted mean heart rate variability and heart rate by categories of health behavior in the male CARLA study population

From: Association of health behaviour with heart rate variability: a population-based study

    Heart rate SDNN LF/HF HF LF
Risk factor   N Mean (95%CI) Mean (95%CI) Mean (95%CI) Mean (95%CI) Mean (95%CI)
Sports-index Q1 243 72.6 (71.1-74.1) 25.8 (24.2-27.6)   1.6 (1.4-1.8)   102.8 (87.1-121.2) 162.8 (140.7-188.3)  
  Q2 255 72.0 (70.5-73.5)   24.5 (23.0-26.1)   1.6 (1.4-1.8)   100.2 (85.3-117.8) 158.5 (137.5-182.8)  
  Q3 177 71.9 (70.1-73.7)   27.6 (25.6-29.8)   1.6 (1.4-1.8)   119.5 (98.4-145.1) 193.1 (162.7-229.1)  
  Q4 215 69.3 (67.7-70.9)   27.2 (25.4-29.2)   1.6 (1.4-1.8)   121.3 (101.7-144.6) 198.0 (169.5-231.2)  
Leisure time-index Q1 181 71.5 (69.8-73.3)   25.6 (23.8-27.7)   1.5 (1.3-1.7)   113.6 (93.7-137.6) 166.1 (140.2-196.7)  
  Q2 234 73.1 (71.6-74.7)   26.0 (24.3-27.8)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   104.2 (88.0-123.4) 173.1 (149.1-200.9)  
  Q3 269 70.1 (68.6-71.5)   26.1 (24.5-27.8)   1.5 (1.4-1.7)   111.6 (95.4-130.6) 172.8 (150.4-198.6)  
  Q4 208 71.3 (69.7-72.9)   26.6 (24.8-28.6)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   108.8 (91.0-130.2) 188.1 (160.6-220.4)  
Total activity-index Q1 182 73.6 (71.8-75.3) 24.9 (23.1-26.8)   1.5 (1.3-1.7)   102.4 (84.6-124.0) 155.2 (131.1-183.6)  
  Q2 236 71.9 (70.4-73.5)   25.1 (23.5-26.8)   1.6 (1.5-1.8)   98.7 (83.5-116.8) 160.6 (138.5-186.3)  
  Q3 274 71.0 (69.5-72.4)   27.3 (25.7-29.0)   1.6 (1.4-1.7)   120.5 (103.2-140.9) 188.5 (164.4-216.3)  
  Q4 198 69.7 (68.0-71.3)   27.0 (25.1-29.0)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   115.0 (95.8-138.2) 196.3 (167.0-230.8)  
No. of currently smoked tobacco products/day none 677 70.5 (69.6-71.4) 26.3 (25.3-27.3)   1.6 (1.5-1.8) 108.8 (98.4-120.3) 178.7 (163.6-195.3)  
  T1 77 73.3 (70.6-76.0)   25.9 (23.1-29.1)   1.8 (1.5-2.1)   100.0 (74.5-134.2) 177.0 (136.5-229.5)  
  T2 89 73.9 (71.3-76.4)   24.9 (22.3-27.8)   1.5 (1.2-1.8)   106.7 (80.6-141.2) 161.2 (125.8-206.4)  
  T3 49 77.8 (74.3-81.2)   26.5 (22.8-30.8)   1.0 (0.8-1.3)   140.9 (96.6-205.5) 148.0 (106.1-206.6)  
Packyears of smoking none 191 70.0 (68.3-71.7) 29.2 (27.1-31.4) 1.7 (1.5-2.0) 134.3 (111.5-161.7) 232.6 (197.6-274.0)
  T1 237 70.9 (69.3-72.4)   26.0 (24.3-27.8)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   104.5 (88.4-123.5) 176.2 (152.1-204.1)  
  T2 229 70.8 (69.3-72.4)   24.7 (23.1-26.4)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   91.5 (77.2-108.5) 158.5 (136.5-184.0)  
  T3 233 73.8 (72.3-75.3)   25.3 (23.7-27.0)   1.3 (1.2-1.5)   115.9 (97.9-137.2) 152.7 (131.7-177.1)  
Alcohol (g/d) none 190 71.4 (69.7-73.1)   25.7 (23.9-27.6)   1.4 (1.3-1.6)   109.9 (91.2-132.5) 159.1 (135.0-187.6)  
  T1 237 71.5 (70.0-73.1)   25.6 (23.9-27.3)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   101.0 (85.4-119.5) 170.6 (147.2-197.9  
  T2 226 69.9 (68.3-71.5)   27.7 (25.9-29.6)   1.6 (1.4-1.8)   129.6 (109.2-153.8) 204.7 (176.0-238.0)  
  T3 237 72.7 (71.2-74.3)   25.6 (24.0-27.4)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   101.0 (85.3-119.5) 168.6 (145.3-195.7)  
Dietary pattern index Q1 252 72.2 (70.7-73.8)   25.1 (23.5-26.8)   1.5 (1.4-1.7)   105.6 (89.4-124.7) 164.0 (141.6-189.9)  
  Q2 215 71.6 (69.9-73.2)   27.6 (25.8-29.6)   1.7 (1.6-2.0)   116.4 (97.6-138.8) 204.2 (174.8-238.4)  
  Q3 194 72.1 (70.4-73.8)   25.6 (23.8-27.5)   1.7 (1.5-1.9)   100.1 (83.1-120.5) 169.9 (144.2-200.1)  
  Q4 230 70.0 (68.4-71.5)   26.3 (24.6-28.2)   1.4 (1.3-1.6)   115.1 (96.9-136.8) 166.5 (143.0-193.9)  
  1. Q1 = lowest quartile of health behavior, Q4 = highest quartile of health behavior; T1 = lowest tertile of health behavior (excluding non-consumer), T3 = highest tertile of health behavior (excluding non-consumer); † p < 0.01, ‡ p < 0.001 (F-test for difference between respective categories of health behavior)