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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the CARLA study population (2002-2006)

From: Association of health behaviour with heart rate variability: a population-based study

  Women (n = 812) Men (n = 967)
  N Mean (Standard deviation) or Proportion N Mean (Standard deviation) or Proportion
Age (yrs) 812 63.7 (9.9) 967 64.9 (10.2)
Heart rate 812 71.5 (10.6) 966 71.34 (12.4)
LDL/HDL-Quotient 807 2.4 (0.9) 960 2.8 (1.0)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 812 28.5 (5.4) 967 28.5 (4.1)
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) 812 0.9 (0.1) 967 1.0 (0.1)
Smoking:       
   Current 119 17.1%   225 27.6%  
   Past 140 18.1%   496 46.9%  
   Never 553 64.8%   245 25.5%  
   Packyears of tobacco products 812 4.3 (9.0) 964 15.6 (16.6)
   Currently smoked no. of tobacco products/day 812 1.9 (5.4) 966 3.8 (8.8)
Alcohol consumption % >20 (female)/30 (male) g/day 32 4.5%   197 22.5%  
   Alcohol g/day 812 4.1 (7.1) 964 17.5 (18.67)
Sports: % active (any sports) 347 42.3%   296 31.3%  
   Sport-index 808 2.4 (0.7) 962 2.4 (0.7)
   Leisure-time-index 810 3.1 (0.6) 966 3.1 (0.6)
   MET-hours per week1 347 9.6 (7.6) 296 13.1 (10.4)
Dietary pattern index 812 16.4 (3.2) 965 14.5 (3.2)
Education (years of training):       
   <= 10 years 122 13.6%   36 4.2%  
   11-13 years 387 47.0%   391 42.0%  
   14-17 years 231 29.1%   335 32.7%  
   >= 18 years 72 10.2%   205 21.1%  
Drug use:       
   Betablockers 279 33.2%   307 27.6%  
   ACE-Inhibitors 254 28.5%   340 30.2%  
Disease prevalence:       
   Myocardial infarction (MI)2 17 1.9%   88 7.6%  
   Stroke 27 2.8%   42 3.5%  
   Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)3 48 5.2%   153 12.7%  
   Hypertension4 608 71.2%   789 78.7%  
   Diabetes mellitus5 120 13.1%   154 15.9%  
  1. 1MET: metabolic equivalent
  2. 2MI: defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed myocardial infarction and/or definite MI by physician-validated Minnesota Code of the 10-second ECG
  3. 3CVD: including prevalent myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, stroke, carotid surgery
  4. 4Hypertension defined as SBP >= 140 and/or DBP >= 90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication by ATC code
  5. 5Diabetes defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus and/or use of anti-diabetic medication by ATC code