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Table 1 Characteristics of participants with CVD, NHANES 2007–08 to 2017–18

From: Trends in adherence to recommended physical activity and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in US adults with cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study

  2007–08 2009–10 2011–12 2013–14 2015–16 2017–18 P for trend
Numbers 671 645 544 568 583 627  
Mean age, years 65.0 (0.6) 64.5 (0.6) 64.3 (0.8) 65.3 (0.9) 65.3 (0.8) 65.3 (0.6) 0.384
Male, % 52.5 (2.6) 57.8 (2.3) 52.2 (2.2) 52.6 (3.4) 54.9 (2.5) 57.0 (2.9) 0.486
Race/ethnicity, %
Mexican American 7.1 (1.7) 8.1 (2.7) 9.7 (2.4) 8.5 (1.8) 9.1 (1.7) 8.3 (1.6) 0.658
Non-Hispanic White 74.4 (3.7) 75.2 (3.7) 70.8 (3.5) 75.2 (2.9) 67.1 (3.6) 71.1 (3.4) 0.240
Non-Hispanic Black 12.7 (2.1) 12.1 (1.7) 12.7 (2.9) 11.1 (1.4) 13.0 (2.5) 11.0 (1.9) 0.659
Other 5.7 (1.2) 4.6 (1.2) 6.8 (1.5) 5.3 (1.0) 10.8 (2.0) 9.6 (2.3) 0.015
Education, %
Less than high school 31.0 (2.7) 28.6 (2.4) 26.3 (3.3) 22.1 (2.4) 19.2 (2.1) 15.8 (2.9)  < 0.001
High school graduate 28.3 (2.5) 26.7 (2.2) 27.0 (3.8) 26.9 (1.7) 25.1 (2.3) 31.5 (2.7) 0.531
Some college 23.3 (3.1) 26.3 (2.1) 28.4 (3.1) 29.6 (1.5) 36.2 (3.0) 28.7 (2.6) 0.023
College graduate 17.3 (2.4) 18.4 (2.4) 18.3 (2.3) 21.3 (2.5) 19.4 (2.7) 23.9 (3.8) 0.120
IPR 2.5 (0.1) 2.8 (0.1) 2.5 (0.1) 2.4 (0.1) 2.5 (0.1) 2.8 (0.1) 0.496
IPR < 1.3 (%) 29.0 (2.8) 25.1 (2.4) 31.6 (2.8) 31.7 (2.9) 30.5 (2.8) 23.3 (1.9) 0.040*
Current smoke, % 20.1 (15) 19.5 (2.1) 23.6 (2.8) 22.0 (2.0) 26.2 (3.8) 18.4 (2.3) 0.707
Current alcohol use, % 67.4 (2.7) 70.0 (2.5) 74.6 (2.5) 73.3 (2.1) 71.4 (3.5) 65.9 (2.9) 0.006*
BMI 30.0 (0.3) 30.9 (0.4) 30.1 (0.4) 30.6 (0.5) 31.2 (0.6) 31.1 (0.3) 0.017
Obesity, % 41.6 (2.1) 49.0 (1.6) 47.2 (3.7) 45.0 (2.3) 52.1 (3.0) 51.0 (3.1) 0.015
Waist circumference, cm 104.7 (0.7) 107.1 (1.0) 104.9 (1.2) 106.5 (1.0) 107.9 (1.3) 107.0 (1.1) 0.064
Hypertension, % 71.3 (2.1) 69.3 (1.9) 72.6 (2.5) 70.5 (1.8) 71.5 (3.6) 68.4 (3.4) 0.629
Systolic BP, mmHg 129.9 (0.8) 126.5 (1.0) 131.2 (1.2) 126.9 (0.9) 130.7 (1.5) 132.4 (1.4) 0.039*
Diastolic BP, mmHg 67.4 (0.9) 66.0 (0.9) 68.2 (0.9) 66.0 (1.2) 66.6 (0.8) 70.2 (1.0) 0.036*
Diabetes, % 33.0 (3.0) 31.0 (1.9) 31.4 (3.9) 31.4 (1.4) 31.3 (2.6) 37.6 (1.9) 0.217
Hemoglobin A1c, % 6.1 (0.1) 6.1 (0.0) 6.2 (0.1) 6.1 (0.1) 6.2 (0.1) 6.2 (0.0) 0.349
Dyslipidemia, % 55.9 (1.9) 53.2 (2.2) 66.3 (2.8) 64.7 (2.3) 66.2 (2.3) 64.4 (3.0)  < 0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 185.5 (2.0) 180.9 (2.1) 182.5 (2.5) 176.4 (1.8) 176.4 (3.1) 174.4 (3.2) 0.001
HDL-C, mg/dL 49.5 (0.8) 49.3 (0.8) 48.8 (0.7) 51.2 (1.0) 51.3 (1.3) 50.0 (1.2) 0.227
Triglycerides, mg/dL 1.8 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 1.8 (0.1) 1.5 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 0.002
  1. Bold fonts indicate statistically significant
  2. BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; IPR, Income-to-poverty ratio; NHANES, national health and nutrition examination survey
  3. *Tested for the non-linear trend