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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population with and without diagonal earlobe crease (n = 655)

From: Diagonal earlobe crease and long-term survival after myocardial infarction

  Total DEC grade 0/1   DEC grade 2/3 p value
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Age 67.95 10.78 62.43 11.60 70.60 9.26 < 0.0001
C-reactive protein 1.85 8.88 1.81 4.46 1.87 5.27 0.0287
  n % n % n % p value
Gender        
Male 490 74.81 180 84.51 310 70.14 < 0.0001
Female 165 25.19 33 15.49 132 29.86  
Risk factors        
Smoking        
 Current smoker 181 27.72 80 37.74 101 22.90 0.0003
 Ex smoker 241 36.91 65 30.66 176 39.91  
 Never smoker 231 35.38 67 31.60 164 37.19  
Hypertension 529 80.76 159 74.65 370 83.71 0.0058
Diabetes 233 35.57 75 35.21 158 35.75 0.8934
Hyperlipidemia 428 65.34 127 59.62 301 68.10 0.0327
Coronary heart disease 194 29.62 50 23.47 144 32.58 0.0168
Heart failure 73 11.15 16 7.51 57 12.90 0.0402
Renal failure 90 13.74 14 6.57 76 17.19 0.0002
COPD 47 7.18 14 6.57 33 7.47 0.6782
Angina pectoris 90 13.74 22 10.33 68 15.38 0.7830
PAOD 85 13.00 21 9.91 64 14.48 0.1035
Stroke 67 10.23 12 8.92 48 10.86 0.4429
Obesity (BMI > 30) 183 27.94 57 26.76 126 28.51 0.6408
Xantelasmata        
 Yes 18 2.75 4 1.89 14 3.17 0.3762
 No 625 95.57 206 97.17 419 94.80  
 Unclear 11 1.68 2 0.94 9 2.04  
AMI characteristics        
Reinfarction 148 22.60 41 19.25 107 24.21 0.1551
STEMI 229 34.96 84 39.44 145 32.81 0.0049
NSTEMI 331 50.53 113 53.05 218 49.32  
Bundle branch block 69 10.53 12 5.63 57 12.90  
Not determined 26 3.97 4 1.88 22 4.98  
1-vessel disease 167 26.13 59 27.96 108 25.23 0.1543
2-vessel disease 190 29.73 71 33.65 119 27.80  
3-vessel disease 265 41.47 76 36.02 189 44.16  
Main artery disease 14 2.19 3 1.42 11 2.57  
Diffuse stenosis or absence of coronary artery disease 3 0.47 2 0.95 1 0.23  
AMI treatment and outcome        
Any recanalization therapy 592 90.38 193 90.61 399 90.27 0.8904
PTCA 524 80.00 174 81.89 350 79.19 0.4528
CABG 74 11.3 22 10.33 52 11.76 0.5865
LVEF        0.0243
> 50% 357 54.75 133 62.44 224 51.03  
41–50% 122 18.71 40 18.78 82 18.68  
31–40% 95 14.57 22 10.33 73 16.63  
≤ 30% 45 6.90 12 5.63 33 7.52  
Undetermined 33 5.06 6 2.82 27 6.15  
Stenting 367 78.92 129 81.13 238 77.78 0.4002
Number of stents        
 1 184 50.27 57 44.19 127 53.59 0.3322
 2 114 31.15 44 34.11 70 29.54  
 3 41 11.20 18 13.95 23 9.70  
 > 3 27 7.38 10 7.75 17 7.17  
Any in-hospital complication* 98 14.96 26 12.21 72 16.29 0.1700
  1. DEC diagonal ear lobe crease, HISIHD history of ischemic heart disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PAOD peripheral arterial occlusive disease, STEMI ST-elevation myocardial infarction, NSTEMI non ST-elevation myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
  2. *Shock, stroke, bleading, brady/tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, lung edema