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Table 1 Characteristics of patients according to VHD status

From: Prognostic implications of valvular heart disease in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

Variables All1
(n = 983)
No/mild VHDa
(n = 408)
Significant VHDa
(n = 575)
p valueb
Age (years) 76 (14) 72 (16) 78 (11)  < 0.001
Gender (men) 553 (54.2) 243 (59.6) 290 (50.4) 0.005
BMI (kg/m2) 28 (6) 29 (6) 25 (3) 0.003
CHA2DS2-VASc score
 Mean (SD) 4.3 ± 2.0 3.8 ± 2.0 4.7 ± 1.9  < 0.001
 Median (IQR) 4 (3) 4 (2) 5 (2)  < 0.001
HASBLED score
 Mean (SD) 1.9 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.1  < 0.001
 Median (IQR) 2 (2) 2 (1) 2 (2)  < 0.001
AF pattern
 First-diagnosed 138 (14) 71 (17.4) 67 (11.7)  < 0.001
 Paroxysmal 364 (37) 198 (48.5) 166 (28.9)  < 0.001
 Persistent or permanent 481 (48.9) 139 (34.1) 342 (59.5)  < 0.001
 Duration of AF (years) 4.0 (9.9) 3.0 (6.98) 4.2 (9.8)  < 0.001
Clinical history
 Hypertension 788 (80.2) 325 (79.7) 463 (80.5) 0.738
 Diabetes mellitus 339 (34.5) 128 (31.4) 211 (36.7) 0.084
 Hyperlipidemia 485 (49.3) 198 (48.5) 287 (49.9) 0.669
 Heart failure 483 (49.1) 128 (31.4) 355 (61.7)  < 0.001
 Endocrinal disease 221 (22.5) 94 (23) 127 (22.1) 0.725
 COPD 132 (13.4) 41 (10) 91 (15.8) 0.009
 Coronary artery disease 429 (43.6) 161 (39.5) 268 (46.6) 0.026
 Prior myocardial infarction 239 (24.3) 80 (19.6) 159 (27.7) 0.004
 Prior PCI or CABG 278 (32.3) 126 (30.9) 192 (33.4) 0.407
 Prior cardiac arrest 26 (2.6) 9 (2.2) 17 (3) 0.470
 Non-fatal stroke or SEE 147 (15) 59 (14.5) 88 (15.3) 0.715
 Non-fatal major hemorrhage 154 (15.7) 46 (11.3) 108 (18.8) 0.001
 Bioprosthetic valve 16 (1.6) 4 (1.0) 12 (2.1) 0.206
 eGFR at discharge (ml/min/1.73m2) 60 (40) 71 (49) 55 (34)  < 0.001
 LVEF (%) 52 (14) 55 (10) 50 (15)  < 0.001
 LAVi (mL/m2) 41 (11) 37 (13) 44 (10)  < 0.001
 NT-proBNP (pg/ml) 2047 (4497) 1422 (2930) 2771 (5746)  < 0.001
 hs-TnT (pg/ml) 27 (43) 20 (32) 34 (51)  < 0.001
Medication at discharge
 Oral anticoagulants 781 (79.4) 312 (76.5) 469 (81.6) 0.242
  Vitamin K antagonist 257 (26.1) 81 (19.9) 176 (30.6)  < 0.001
  Non-vitamin K antagonist 524 (53.3) 231 (56.6) 293 (51) 0.02
 Antiplatelet agent 265 (27) 109 (27) 156 (27.1) 0.885
  Aspirin 102 (10.4) 37 (9.1) 65 (11.3) 0.257
  Clopidogrel 60 (6.1) 26 (6.4) 34 (5.9) 0.767
  Dual antiplatelet 103 (10.5) 46 (11.3) 57 (9.9) 0.492
B-blocker 739 (75.2) 289 (70.8) 450 (77.3) 0.005
Digoxin 60 (6.1) 17 (4.1) 48 (8.3) 0.009
Calcium channel blocker 204 (20.8) 95 (23.3) 109 (19) 0.137
Antiarrhythmic agent 228 (23.2) 117 (30.1) 105 (18.3)  < 0.001
 Amiodarone 178 (18.1) 95 (23.3) 83 (14.4)  < 0.001
 Propafenone 27 (2.7) 18 (4.4) 9 (1.6) 0.007
 Sotalol 23 (2.3) 10 (2.5) 13 (2.3) 0.846
ACE inhibitors or ARBs 429 (43.6) 195 (47.8) 234 (40.7) 0.046
MRAs 257 (26.1) 66 (16.2) 191 (33.2)  < 0.001
Statins 387 (39.4) 175 (42.9) 212 (36.9) 0.089
Diuretics 591 (60.1) 181 (44.4) 410 (71.3)  < 0.001
  1. aData were reported as absolute numbers (%), means (SD), or medians (IQR)
  2. bValues in bold indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)
  3. VHD valvular heart disease, AF atrial fibrillation, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery by-pass, SEE systemic embolic event, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LAVi indexed left atrial volume, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, hs-TnT cardiac troponin T measured with high-sensitivity assay, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists