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Table 1 Characters of the study population with and without valvular heart disease

From: Current status and etiology of valvular heart disease in China: a population-based survey

  Total (n = 31,499) VHD (n = 1309) No VHD (n = 30,190) P value
Gender     0.308
 Male (%) 50.7 (49.0–52.5) 48.2 (42.9–53.5) 50.8 (49.0–52.7)  
 Female (%) 49.3 (47.5–51.0) 51.8 (46.5–57.1) 49.2 (47.3–51.0)  
Age (mean, years) 51.8 (51.0–52.5) 61.6 (59.9–63.2) 51.4 (50.7–52.1) < 0.001
BMI (mean, Kg/m2) 24.7 (24.3–25.0) 24.2 (23.5–24.9) 24.7 (24.3–25.1) 0.058
Region     0.134
 East (%) 44.1 (20.1–68.2) 49.2 (15.4–82.9) 43.9 (20.1–67.8)  
 Central (%) 34.5 (11.0–58.0) 21.7 (7.8–47.8) 35.0 (11.3–58.7)  
 West (%) 21.4 (8.0–45.9) 29.1 (0.0–61.7) 21.0 (7.9–45.2)  
Residence     0.407
 Rural (%) 37.5 (22.3–52.7) 44.3 (15.1–73.7) 37.2 (22.4–52.0)  
 Urban (%) 62.5 (47.3–77.7) 55.7 (26.4–84.9) 62.8 (48.0–77.6)  
Heart diseases history
 Ischemia (%) 0.5 (0.2–1.0) 1.9 (0.8–4.8) 0.4 (0.2–0.9) < 0.001
 AF (%) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 4.5 (2.9–6.9) 0.6 (0.4–0.9) < 0.001
 Systolic HF (%) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 3.9 (2.6–5.9) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) < 0.001
 DCM (%) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) 3.5 (1.8–6.7) 0.2 (0.1–0.3) < 0.001
 HCM (%) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 0.2 (0.1–0.3) < 0.001
 CHD (%) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 1.4 (0.6–3.3) 0.1 (0.0–0.3) < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension (%) 35.1 (32.8–37.4) 51.9 (48.4–55.4) 34.4 (32.2–36.7) < 0.001
 Stroke (%) 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 3.3 (1.8–6.1) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 0.004
 Dyslipidemia (%) 32.4 (28.4–36.4) 28.9 (23.6–34.1) 32.5 (28.5–36.5) 0.015
 Diabetes (%) 8.5 (7.5–9.7) 9.0 (7.5–10.8) 8.5 (7.4–9.8) 0.581
 CKD (%) 4.6 (3.7–5.7) 11.0 (8.4–14.2) 4.3 (3.5–5.3) < 0.001
Echocardiography measurements
 LAap (mm) 31.2 (30.4–32.1) 34.3 (32.9–35.7) 31.1 (30.3–32.0) < 0.001
 LVEDD (mm) 46.2 (45.5–47.0) 48.2 (47.2–49.2) 46.2 (45.4–46.9) < 0.001
 IVSd (mm) 9.6 (9.3–9.8) 10.0 (9.4–10.6) 9.5 (9.2–9.8) 0.077
 LVESD (mm) 30.0 (29.3–30.8) 32.2 (31.1–33.3) 30.0 (29.2–30.7) < 0.001
 LVEF (%) 64.4 (62.8–65.9) 62.7 (60.7–64.7) 64.4 (62.9–66.0) < 0.001
  1. Data were represented as means or percentage (95% CI)
  2. All values were weighted to represent the total population of Chinese aged 35 years or older based on the Chinese census 2010
  3. VHD, valvular heart disease; BMI, body mass index; AF, atrial fibrillation; HF, heart failure; DCM, Dilated Cardiomyopathy; HCM, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; CHD, congenital heart disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease. LAap, the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium; LVEDD, the diameter of the left ventricle at end-diastole; IVSd, the thickness of the interventricular septum; LVESD, the left ventricle end-systolic diameter; LVEF, the left ventricle ejection fraction
  4. P value for t-test (continuous) and x2 or Fisher’s exact test (categorical) to assess the difference between population with VHD and those without it