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Table 3 Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of the participants according to tertiles of P1NP

From: IGFBP7 and GDF-15, but not P1NP, are associated with cardiac alterations and 10-year outcome in an elderly community-based study

  Total P1NP p
Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
N = 1991 N = 656 N = 659 N = 676
P1NP Median [IQR] 35.2 [26.3–46.0] 23.0 [19.2–26.2] 35.0 [31.6–37.7] 52.4 [45.8–64.2]  
Range 6.34–1200 6.34–29.2 29.3–41.1 41.2–1200
Age, years Mean ± SD 72.9 ± 5.0 72.63 ± 4.8 72.7 ± 5.0 73.3 ± 5.2 0.035
Females N (%) 962 (48.3%) 253 (38.6%) 304 (46.1%) 405 (59.9%) 2.5 × 10−14
BMI, kg/m2 Mean ± SD 26.5 ± 4.2 26.5 ± 3.9 26.7 ± 4.3 26.3 ± 4.2 0.192
BSA, m2 Mean ± SD 1.80 ± 0.19 1.82 ± 0.18 1.81 ± 0.20 1.77 ± 0.18 2.0 × 10−6
Serum creatinine, mg/dL−1 Mean ± SD 0.96 ± 0.27 0.96 ± 0.21 0.96 ± 0.26 0.96 ± 0.32 0.947
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 Mean ± SD 69.3 ± 21.0 70.7 ± 20.4 70.6 ± 22.3 66.7 ± 20.2 3.8 × 10−4
CKD (eGFR < 60) N (%) 671 (34.0%) 206 (31.5%) 212 (32.6%) 253 (37.9%) 0.030
Clinical history
Hypertension N (%) 1183 (59.4%) 387 (59.0%) 388 (58.9%) 408 (60.4%) 0.829
Diabetes mellitus N (%) 330 (16.7%) 148 (22.7%) 98 (15.0%) 84 (12.5%) 2.0 × 10−6
Smoking N (%) 259 (13.0%) 89 (13.6%) 93 (14.1%) 77 (11.4%) 1.2 × 10−4
Alcohol use N (%) 1171 (58.8%) 405 (61.8%) 401 (60.8%) 365 (54.0%) 0.006
Dyslipidaemia N (%) 854 (43.9%) 290 (45.3%) 284 (44.3%) 280 (42.0%) 0.474
Angina pectoris N (%) 123 (6.2%) 47 (7.2%) 38 (5.8%) 38 (5.6%) 0.437
Myocardial infarction N (%) 122 (6.2%) 42 (6.4%) 37 (5.7%) 43 (6.4%) 0.792
Atrial fibrillation N (%) 153 (7.7%) 45 (6.9%) 55 (8.3%) 53 (7.8%) 0.589
COPD N (%) 178 (8.9%) 67 (10.2%) 56 (8.5%) 55 (8.1%) 0.368
Heart failure N (%) 127 (6.7%) 38 (6.1%) 41 (6.6%) 48 (7.5%) 0.605
AHA/ACC class
Normal N (%) 250 (12.6%) 78 (11.9%) 85 (12.9%) 87 (12.9%) 0.103
A N (%) 466 (23.4%) 152 (23.2%) 178 (27.0%) 136 (20.1%)
B N (%) 1148 (57.7%) 388 (59.1%) 355 (53.9%) 405 (59.9%)
C N (%) 127 (6.4%) 38 (5.8%) 41 (6.2%) 48 (7.1%)
Circulating biomarkers
IGFBP7, ng/mL Median [IQR] 166 [151–184] 163 [149–179] 164 [149–182] 170 [154–192] 2.2 × 10−7
GDF-15, pg/mL Median [IQR] 1468 [1168–1984] 1478 [1160–2046] 1435 [1160–1878] 1499 [1186–2070] 0.058
hs cTnT, ng/L Median [IQR] 5.5 [3.0–9.5] 6.0 [3.0–9.8] 5.2 [3.0–8.6] 5.4 [3.0–10.4] 0.147
NT-proBNP, ng/L Median [IQR] 92 [47–186] 85 [43–167] 87 [45–169] 112 [53–219] 9.0 × 10−6
Echocardiography and outcomes
LVEF, %
N = 1858)
Mean ± SD 66.1 ± 7.4 66.0 ± 7.6 66.2 ± 7.1 65.9 ± 7.5 0.803
LAA-, cm2
(N = 1332)
Mean ± SD 11.2 ± 4.4 11.1 ± 4.1 11.0 ± 4.3 11.6 ± 4.6 0.105
LV mass / BSA, g/m2
(N = 1489)
Mean ± SD 92.2 ± 23.2 94.2 ± 24.5 91.5 ± 23.2 90.9 ± 21.8 0.045
LVH
(N = 1853)
N (%) 396 (24.8%) 128 (23.9%) 123 (23.6%) 145 (26.9%) 0.400
MFS reduced
(N = 1470)
N (%) 471 (32.2%) 170 (34.2%) 144 (30.4%) 157 (31.8%) 0.435
E/e’ > 8
(N = 1801)
N (%) 801 (44.7%) 267 (45.4%) 239 (40.2%) 295 (48.4%) 0.016
Enlarged LA-area (N = 1332) N (%) 54 (4.1%) 16 (3.7%) 15 (3.4%) 23 (5.1%) 0.413
Outcomes (N = 1715)
All-cause mortality N (%) 526 (30.8%) 169 (30.0%) 159 (28.3%) 198 (34.0%) 0.098
CV mortality N (%) 125 (6.3%) 38 (5.8%) 35 (5.3%) 52 (7.7%) 0.165
Hospitalization N (%) 1360 (79.7%) 455 (80.8%) 443 (78.8%) 462 (79.4%) 0.693
CV hospitalization N (%) 613 (35.9%) 217 (38.5%) 188 (33.5%) 208 (35.7%) 0.204
HF hospitalization N (%) 184 (10.8%) 60 (10.7%) 50 (8.9%) 74 (12.7%) 0.114
  1. BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; CKD, chronic kidney disease defined as eGFR < 60; CV, cardiovascular; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; E/e ‘ > 8 vs <  = 8; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GDF-15, growth differentiation factor-15; hs cTnT, high sensitivity cardiac troponin T; IGFBP7, insulin grow factor binding protein; LAA, left atrial area, enlarged if > 20 cm2; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVH: Left ventricular hypertrophy defined as LV mass/BSA > 95 g/m2 for women and > 115 g/m2 for men; MFS, midwall circumference fraction shortening, reduced if MFS < 15%; NTproBNP, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide; P1NP, amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen. Continuous data is presented either as mean ± SD or median [IQR]