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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the overall population and according to antithrombotic treatment strategy

From: Demographic, clinical, and functional determinants of antithrombotic treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

Characteristics No treatment VKAs DOACs Antiplatelets Antiplatelets + anticoagulants Overall p value
No. (%) 45 (4.7) 573 (59.6) 208 (21.6) 63 (6.6) 72 (7.5) 961 (100.0) –-
Inpatient/Outpatient, n (%) 21 (46.7)/ 24 (53.3) 301(52.5)/ 272 (47.5) 70 (33.7)/ 138 (66.3) 46 (73.0)/ 17 (27.0) 43 (59.7)/ 29 (40.3) 481(50.1)/ 480 (49.9) –-
Type of NVAF, n (%) b         < 0.001
Paroxysmal 21 (46.7) 90 (15.7) 52 (25.0) 26 (41.3) 14 (19.4) 203 (21.1)  
Persistent 6 (13.3) 47 (8.2) 19 (9.1) 6 (9.5) 7 (9.7) 85 (8.8)  
Permanent 18 (40.0) 436 (76.1) 137 (65.9) 31 (49.2) 51 (70.8) 673 (70.0)  
Time since diagnosis, median (IQR), years a 2.5 (0.1–7.2) 4.7 (2.3–9.0) 3.0 (1.3–8.0) 5.0 (1.0–8.2) 3.9 (1.4–8.3) 4.2 (1.7–8.6)  < 0.001
Comorbidities, n (%) b        
Active neoplasia 11 (24.4) 76 (13.3) 24 (11.5) 12 (19.0) 10 (13.9) 133 (13.8) 0.149
COPD 9 (20.0) 164 (28.6) 53 (25.5) 15 (23.8) 21 (29.2) 262 (27.3) 0.631
Renal disease/CKD 17 (37.8) 180 (31.4) 54 (26.0) 23 (36.5) 24 (33.3) 298 (31.0) 0.336
Cardiovascular history, n (%)        
Congestive heart failure 21 (46.7) 323 (56.4) 106 (51.0) 28 (44.4) 44 (61.1) 522 (54.3) 0.147
Ischaemic disease d 1 (2.2) 101 (17.6) 28 (13.5) 12 (19.0) 37 (51.4) 179 (18.6)  < 0.001
Peripheral artery disease 1 (2.2) 43 (7.5) 17 (8.2) 9 (14.3) 18 (25.0) 88 (9.2)  < 0.001
Stroke/TIA 8 (17.8) 95 (16.6) 47 (22.6) 17 (27.0) 22 (30.6) 189 (19.7) 0.016
Arterial thromboembolism/venous thromboembolic disease, n (%) 2 (4.4) 29 (5.1) 9 (4.3) 2 (3.2) 2 (2.8) 44 (4.6) 0.885
Hypertension, n (%) 35 (77.8) 519 (90.6) 191 (91.8) 54 (85.7) 65 (90.3) 864 (89.9) 0.047
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 10 (22.2) 237 (41.4) 72 (34.6) 31 (49.2) 36 (50.0) 386 (40.2) 0.007
Abnormal hepatic function e, n (%) 2 (4.4) 37 (6.5) 14 (6.7) 6 (9.5) 2 (2.8) 61 (6.3) 0.590
Abnormal renal function f, n (%) 20 (44.4) 249 (43.5) 82 (39.4) 31 (49.2) 32 (44.4) 414 (43.1) 0.695
Prior bleeding, n (%) b 8 (17.8) 71 (12.4) 33 (15.9) 9 (14.3) 10 (13.9) 131 (13.6) 0.678
CHA2DS2-VASc score, median (IQR) a 4.0 (4.0–5.5)  5.0 (4.0–6.0) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 5.0 (4.0–6.8)   5.0 (4.0–6.0) 0.097
Risk categories, n (%) c         < 0.001
0 4 (8.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 5 (0.5)  
1 0 (0.0) 6 (1.0) 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4) 8 (0.8)  
 ≥ 2 41 (91.1) 567 (99.0) 207 (99.5) 62 (98.4) 71 (98.6) 948 (98.6)  
Score ≥ 5, n (%) 19 (46.4) 330 (58.2) 112 (54.6) 39 (62.9) 47 (66.0) 547 (57.6)  
HAS-BLED score, median (IQR) a 3.0 (2.0–3.0) 3.0 (2.0–4.0) 3.0 (2.0–4.0) 4.0 (3.0–4.0) 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 3.0 (2.0–4.0)  < 0.001
Risk categories, n (%) b         < 0.001
 < 3 22 (48.9) 228 (39.8) 75 (36.1) 7 (11.1) 5 (6.9) 337 (35.1)  
 ≥ 3 23 (51.1) 345 (60.2) 133 (63.9) 56 (88.9) 67 (93.1) 624 (64.9)  
  1. NVAF non-valvular atrial fibrillation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, DOAC direct-acting oral anticoagulant, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, TIA transient ischemic attack, VKA vitamin K antagonist
  2. For normally distributed data, mean and standard deviation are used, and for data not normally distributed, median with interquartile range are used. aNon-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test, bChi-square test, cFisher’s exact test. dIncludes myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease, echronic hepatic disease (e.g. cirrhosis) or biochemical data indicative of significant hepatic damage (e.g. bilirubin > 2 × the upper normal limit, associated with AST/ALT > 3 × the upper normal limit, etc.), fchronic dialysis, renal transplant or serum creatinine ≥ 200 μmol/l) (yes/no) and renal disease staging based on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines G3a, 45–59 mL/min/1,73 m2; G3b, 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2; G4, 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2; or G5, < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2