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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the studied population sample

From: IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 are associated with a decreased pulse-wave velocity in young, healthy adults

  Men (n = 257) Non-estrogen using women (n = 427) Estrogen using women (n = 149) p value M vs NEU p value M vs EU p value NEU vs EU
Age 22 ± 2.0 22 ± 2.0 22 ± 1.6 0.69 0.27 0.58
Body fat (%) 15 ± 5.6 28 ± 6.8 27 ± 5.9  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.42
LDL (mmol/L) 2.3 ± 0.69 2.2 ± 0.69 2.5 ± 0.79 0.36  < 0.001  < 0.001
HDL (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.28 1.4 ± 0.35 1.5 ± 0.41  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.81
CHOL (mmol/L) 4.0 ± 0,79 4.3 ± 0.77 4.4 ± 0.77 0.0034  < 0.001 0.0042
Systolic BP (mmHg) 122 ± 11 109 ± 9.0 112 ± 7.5  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.0034
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 64 ± 6.7 64 ± 6.0 65 ± 6.9 0.089 0.75 0.015
TG (mmol/L) 0.79 ± 0.35 0.75 ± 0.32 0.99 ± 0.39 0.25  < 0.001  < 0.001
Fasting serum insulin (mIE/L) 7.5 ± 3.7 8.1 ± 4.7 8.2 ± 4.4 0.32 0.56 0.99
HOMA-IR 1.8 ± 0.90 1.8 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 0.93 0.95 0.99 0.96
Apo B (g/L) 0.77 ± 0.18 0.78 ± 0.18 0.83 ± 0.20 0.97  < 0.001  < 0.001
Apo A-1 (g/L) 1.4 ± 0.21 1.5 ± 0.27 1.7 ± 0.325  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio 0.56 ± 0.14 0.51 ± 0.14 0.50 ± 0.15  < 0.001 0.032 0.75
CRP (mg/L) 1.3 ± 2.7 1.4 ± 2.8 4.1 ± 7.1 0.99  < 0.001  < 0.001
PWV (m/s) 5.6 ± 0.86 5.2 ± 0.69 5.3 ± 0.9  < 0.001 0.092 0.0045
AIX (%) − 8.4 ± 9.5 − 5.0 ± 10 − 4.7 ± 9.1  < 0.001 0.0019 0.99
cIMT (mm) 0.60 ± 0.073 0.49 ± 0.057 0.50 ± 0.055 0.48 0.18 0.61
PC 1 0.64 ± 0.75 − 0.020 ± 0.87 − 1.0 ± 0.85  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
PC 2 0.032 ± 0.97 0.036 ± 1.1 − 0.16 ± 0.86 0.99 0.29 0.21
PC 3 − 0.52 ± 0.78 − 0.068 ± 0.86 1.1 ± 0.87  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD (standard deviation). P value: comparison between groups by ANOVA with Tukey post hoc comparison. M = Men. NEU = Non-estrogen using women. EU = estrogen using women. LDL = low-density lipoprotein. HDL = high-density lipoprotein. TG = triglycerides. CHOL = total cholesterol. BP = blood pressure. Apo B = apolipoprotein B. Apo A-1 = Apolipoprotein A-1. CRP = C-reactive protein. BP = Blood pressure. PWV = pulse-wave velocity. AIX = Augmentation index. cIMT = carotid-intima media thickness. PC = principal component