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Table 5 Subgroup analysis of NACE in sustained PPI, intermittent PPI users and non-PPI users

From: Intermittent concurrent use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors did not increase risk of adverse clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease

Subgroup No. of events (%) Adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p value
Sustained PPI users Intermittent PPI users Non-PPI users Sustained versus non Intermittent versus non Intermittent versus sustained
Overall 27 (13.4) 13 (6.9) 25 (10.0) 1.309 (0.687, 2.495), p = 0.413 0.467 (0.213, 1.025), p = 0.058 0.357 (0.162, 0.786), p = 0.011
Age       
 ≤ 60 y 3 (5.2) 4 (5.1) 6 (7.3) 1.152 (0.128, 10.388), p = 0.899 0.534 (0.055, 5.155), p = 0.588 0.464 (0.039, 5.486), p = 0.542
 > 60 y 24 (16.8) 9 (8.2) 19 (11.4) 1.392 (0.692, 2.802), p = 0.353 0.440 (0.170, 1.138), p = 0.090 0.316 (0.122, 0.818), p = 0.018
Gender       
 Male 21 (17.1) 8 (6.9) 13 (7.5) 2.079 (0.937, 4.611), p = 0.072 0.526 (0.193, 1.434), p = 0.209 0.253 (0.097, 0.664), p = 0.005
 Female 6 (7.7) 5 (6.9) 12 (16.0) 0.411 (0.113, 1.489), p = 0.176 0.380 (0.097, 1.496), p = 0.166 0.925 (0.198, 4.317), p = 0.921
Hypertension       
 Yes 23 (16.0) 9 (7.0) 20 (11.2) 1.234 (0.617, 2.466), p = 0.552 0.360 (0.135, 0.964), p = 0.042* 0.292 (0.109, 0.785), p = 0.015
 No 4 (7.0) 4 (6.7) 5 (7.1) 0.958 (0.140, 6.574), p = 0.965 0.328 (0.040, 2.725), p = 0.302 0.343 (0.038, 3.079), p = 0.339
Stroke       
 Yes 7 (20.6) 2 (10.5) 12 (25.5) 0.668 (0.206, 2.164), p = 0.501 0.306 (0.031, 3.025), p = 0.311 0.457 (0.047, 4.469), p = 0.501
 No 20 (12.0) 11 (6.5) 13 (6.4) 2.433 (1.020, 5.805), p = 0.045 0.649 (0.258, 1.631), p = 0.358 0.267 (0.104, 0.686), p = 0.066
DM       
 Yes 8 (18.6) 8 (13.1) 11 (13.8) 2.080 (0.647, 6.692), p = 0.219 0.707 (0.233, 2.151), p = 0.542 0.340 (0.092, 1.257), p = 0.106
 No 19 (12.0) 5 (3.9) 14 (8.3) 1.017 (0.465, 2.224), p = 0.966 0.369 (0.115, 1.185), p = 0.094 0.362 (0.118, 1.117), p = 0.077
CKD       
 Yes 25 (15.9) 12 (8.1) 25 (14.2) 1.220 (0.633, 2.351), p = 0.552 0.441 (0.195, 0.999), p = 0.050 0.361 (0.157, 0.833), p = 0.017
 No 2 (4.5) 1 (2.5) 0 (0.0)
Gastroduodenal ulcer       
 Yes 4 (9.1) 1 (3.6) 5 (26.3) 0.485 (0.048, 4.857), p = 0.538 0.191 (0.014, 2.550), p = 0.210 0.393 (0.034, 4.527), p = 0.454
 No 23 (14.7) 12 (7.5) 20 (8.7) 1.740 (0.856, 3.537), p = 0.126 0.583 (0.248, 1.369), p = 0.215 0.335 (0.142, 0.789), p = 0.012
PPI types       
 Pantoprazole 24 (16.8) 8 (7.2) 25 (10.0) 1.176 (0.508, 2.718), p = 0.705 0.505 (0.196, 1.303), p = 0.158 0.430 (0.150, 1.230), p = 0.115
 Others 3 (5.2) 5 (6.4) 25 (10.0) 1.127 (0.514, 2.471), p = 0.766 0.381 (0.121, 1.202), p = 0.100 0.338 (0.098, 1.169), p = 0.087
PCI       
 Yes 18 (11.9) 3 (2.5) 14 (9.3) 1.166 (0.522, 2.602), p = 0.708 0.194 (0.052, 0.731), p = 0.015 0.167 (0.045, 0.617), p = 0.007
 No 9 (18.0) 10 (14.7) 11 (11.1) 1.595 (0.532, 4.783), p = 0.405 0.954 (0.341, 2.671), p = 0.929 0.598 (0.178, 2.014), p = 0.407
CYP2C19 genotypes       
 EM 5 (14.3) 2 (4.5) 5 (10.2) 4.173 (0.606, 28.750), p = 0.147 0.624 (0.088, 4.402), p = 0.636 0.149 (0.022, 1.031), p = 0.054
 IM 9 (16.4) 4 (8.0) 6 (12.8) 3.652 (0.916, 14.559), p = 0.066 0.664 (0.156, 2.827), p = 0.580 0.182 (0.044, 0.751), p = 0.019
 PM 2 (3.6) 1 (6.3) 2 (10.5) 0.058 (0.002, 1.887), p = 0.109
  1. CKD, chronic kidney disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; EM, extensive metabolizers; GI, gastrointestinal; IM, intermediate metabolizers; MI, myocardial infarction; NACE, net adverse clinical events; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PM, poor metabolizers; PPI, proton pump inhibitor