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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Differing effects of beta-blockers on long-term clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention between patients with mid-range and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

  mrEF rEF
β-blocker ( +) (n = 163) β-blocker ( −) (n = 153) p value β-blocker ( +) (n = 99) β-blocker ( −) (n = 102) p value
Age (years) 64.9 ± 12.1 65.7 ± 10.8 0.567 66.6 ± 10.6 67.8 ± 11.3 0.435
Men (%) 137 (84.1) 125 (81.7) 0.579 84 (84.9) 88 (86.3) 0.774
BMI, (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 4.0 23.1 ± 3.5 0.015 24.2 ± 4.0 23.2 ± 4.0 0.082
Hypertension, n (%) 114 (69.9) 96 (62.8) 0.176 76 (76.8) 60 (58.8) 0.007
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 76 (46.6) 69 (45.1) 0.785 53 (53.5) 51 (50.0) 0.616
CKD, n (%) 58 (36.5) 51 (33.6) 0.589 42 (43.3) 50 (51.0) 0.280
eGFR, (mL/min/1.73 m2) 68.7 ± 27.7 66.6 ± 24.9 0.489 63.6 ± 24.6 60.0 ± 38.5 0.427
Family history of IHD, n (%) 47 (29.2) 36 (23.5) 0.255 28 (28.6) 21 (20.6) 0.189
Current smoking, n (%) 43 (26.4) 41 (26.8) 0.933 21 (21.2) 20 (19.6) 0.778
Hemoglobin, g/dL 14.5 ± 1.3 13.2 ± 2.1 0.319 13.2 ± 1.8 12.6 ± 2.1 0.131
LDL-C, mg/dL 111.1 ± 32.3 115.2 ± 31.5 0.249 114.9 ± 38.1 115.0 ± 37.8 0.983
HDL-C, mg/dL 44.8 ± 14.3 44.7 ± 14.6 0.983 41.2 ± 10.7 41.5 ± 12.8 0.867
Triglycerides, mg/dL 131.3 ± 71.6 121.9 ± 74.1 0.251 117.8 ± 58.3 117.5 ± 65.8 0.974
Systolic BP, mmHg 135.6 ± 25.6 132.7 ± 21.9 0.289 124.7 ± 23.1 120.1 ± 21.0 0.143
Diastolic BP, mmHg 74.6 ± 15.3 73.2 ± 13.9 0.401 72.2 ± 13.1 65.8 ± 11.9  < 0.001
LVEF, % 44.5 ± 3.1 44.5 ± 2.9 0.972 30.6 ± 6.8 30.3 ± 7.4 0.755
Multivessel disease, n (%) 99 (61.9) 92 (60.1) 0.752 66 (66.7) 79 (77.5) 0.088
LMT lesion, n (%) 2 (1.2) 7 (4.6) 0.074 6 (6.1) 2 (2.0) 0.137
LAD lesion, n (%) 86 (52.8) 72 (47.1) 0.311 47 (47.5) 52 (51.0) 0.619
MLD at baseline, (mm) 0.3 (0.3–0.4) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 0.184 0.3 (0.2–0.4) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 0.036
MLD post-procedure, (mm) 2.7 (2.6–2.8) 2.7 (2.6–2.8) 0.708 2.7 (2.6–2.8) 2.5 (2.3–2.7) 0.062
Reference lumen diameter, (mm) 2.9 (2.8–3.0) 3.0 (2.9–3.1) 0.053 2.9 (2.8–3.0) 3.0 (2.8–3.1) 0.379
Type B2/ C lesion, n (%) 121 (74.2) 102 (66.7.0) 0.140 80 (80.8) 58 (56.9)  < 0.001
Stent size, (mm) 3.0 (3.0–3.25) 3.0 (3.0–3.25) 0.579 3.0 (2.75–3.0) 3.0 (2.75–3.0) 0.780
BMS 86 (52.8) 72 (47.1) 0.311 40 (40.4) 46 (45.1) 0.569
DES 48 (29.5) 46 (30.1) 0.905 37 (37.4) 18 (17.7) 0.003
ACS, n (%) 75 (46.0) 67 (43.8) 0.692 42 (42.4) 47 (46.1) 0.602
Medications  
 Aspirin, n (%) 153 (93.9) 139 (90.9) 0.312 97 (98.0) 79 (77.5)  < 0.001
 Ca-blockers, n (%) 36 (22.1) 34 (22.2) 0.977 19 (19.2) 19 (18.6) 0.919
 ACE-Is/ARBs, n (%) 117 (71.8) 104 (68.0) 0.556 70 (70.7) 55 (53.9) 0.014
 Statins, n (%) 101 (62.0) 73 (47.7) 0.011 62 (62.6) 36 (35.3)  < 0.001
  1. Data is presented as n (%), mean ± standard deviation, or median (interquartile range)
  2. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACS acute coronary syndrome, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, BMS bare metal stent, CKD chronic kidney disease, DES drug-eluting stent, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IHD ischemic heart disease, LAD left anterior descending artery, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LMT left main trunk, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MLD minimal lumen diameter, mrEF mid-range ejection fraction