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Table 2 Comparison between the baseline and last follow-up characteristics of patients in the selenium and control groups

From: Selenium supplementation in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy: a proof-of-concept trial

Characteristic Selenium supplementation group Controls
Baseline (n = 46) Final (n = 43) ∆Change p value Baseline (n = 54) Final (n = 45) ∆Change p value
Biomarkers
 Serum selenium, μg/L 49.8 ± 10.8 85.2 ± 19.0 + [35.5] < 0.001* 48.1 ± 10.6 74.5 ± 17.1 + [26.4] < 0.001*
 Serum GPX, U/L 326. ± 122 341 ± 193 + [15] 0.653 362 ± 145 307 ± 137 − 55 0.056
NYHA class
 I 32.6% 58.1% + [25.5]% 0.027* 18.5% 17.8% − 0.7% 0.868
 II–IV 67.4% 41.9% − 25.5% 48.1% 82.2% + [34.1]%
Heart failure treatments
 Loop diuretics 84.8% 23.3% − 61.5% < 0.001* 83.3% 40.0% − 43.3% < 0.001*
 ACEI or ARB 23.9% 58.1% + [34.2]% 0.002* 27.8% 51.1% + [23.3]% 0.030*
 Beta-blockers 19.6% 46.5% + [26.9]% 0.013* 9.3% 51.1% + [41.8]% < 0.001*
 Spironolactone 91.3% 53.5% − 37.8% < 0.001* 88.9% 57.8% − 31.1% < 0.001*
 Digoxin 71.7% 41.9% − 29.8% 0.009* 66.7% 55.6% − 11.1% 0.355
Echocardiography
 LA dimension, mm 45.1 ± 6.5 37.0 ± 5.5 − 8.1 < 0.001* 45.7 ± 5.8 39.0 ± 4.9 − 6.7 < 0.001*
 LVEDD, mm 62.1 ± 7.2 55.4 ± 11.7 − 6.7 0.002* 64.0 ± 7.8 55.2 ± 11.2 − 8.8 < 0.001*
 LVEF, % 30.9 ± 7.1 45.9 ± 12.2 + [15.0] < 0.001* 28.8 ± 8.0 42.0 ± 13.7 + [13.2] < 0.001*
 RV basal diameter, mm 42.7 ± 7.9 34.0 ± 7.2 − 8.7 < 0.001* 42.0 ± 6.9 34.0 ± 6.4 − 8.0 < 0.001*
 TAPSE, mm 14.1 ± 3.7 17.9 ± 4.1 + [3.8] < 0.001* 14.3 ± 2.7 16.8 ± 3.1 + [2.5] < 0.001*
 PASP, mmHg 42.8 ± 19.0 35.1 ± 18.9 − 7.7 0.059 44.0 ± 18.2 47.1 ± 32.4 + [3.1] 0.551
  1. n, number of patients; GPX, glutathione peroxidase; NYHA, New York Heart Association; ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; LA, left atrium; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVEF, LV ejection fraction; RV, right ventricle; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; PASP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure; ∆Change, change in the mean or percentage; *, p value statistically significant. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, or as proportions in percentages