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Table 4 The odds ratios of the effects of multiple factors on arrhythmias

From: Prevalences and associated factors of electrocardiographic abnormalities in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study

ECG abnormalities Gender (male vs female) 45–59 years old ≥60 years old Smoking Hypertension Diabetes Obesity Hyper-cholesterolemia Rural (vs urban)
Major arrhythmias 2.14
(1.56–2.95)
1.83
(1.29–2.58)
4.90
(3.48–6.92)
1.22
(0.89–1.69)
1.29
(0.95–1.77)
0.86
(0.57–1.29)
1.20
(0.77–1.87)
1.37
(0.93–2.04)
1.39
(1.06–1.81)
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter 1.91
(0.83–4.42)
1.23
(0.37–4.05)
9.39
(3.63–24.29)
1.01
(0.42–2.46)
1.64
(0.74–3.65)
0.68
(0.25–1.82)
0.72
(0.19–2.69)
2.21
(0.86–5.68)
1.91
(0.95–3.86)
 Complete LBBB 3.06
(0.77–12.19)
2.84
(0.53–15.07)
11.08
(2.43–50.49)
2.10
(0.53–8.31)
0.95
(0.33–2.72)
1.57
(0.25–9.94)
0.98
(0.30–3.15)
2.41
(0.61–9.50)
3.72
(1.25–11.06)
 Complete RBBB 1.92
(1.23–3.01)
2.04
(1.22–3.41)
5.27
(3.19–8.70)
1.23
(0.78–1.94)
1.36
(0.87–2.13)
1.07
(0.66–1.74)
1.45
(0.76–2.77)
1.22
(0.70–2.11)
1.02
(0.69–1.50)
 Nonspecific IVCD 18.43
(5.44–62.44)
1.88
(0.79–4.47)
2.89
(1.03–8.09)
1.04
(0.47–2.33)
1.02
(0.41–2.50)
0.23
(0.05–1.02)
0.95
(0.25–3.59)
1.25
(0.40–3.92)
2.53
(1.29–4.96)
 Mobitz Type II or III AV conduction defects 0.96
(0.26–3.58)
12.09
(3.11–47.04)
2.74
(0.49–15.26)
0.55
(0.13–2.34)
2.88
(0.58–14.32)
0.69
(0.13–3.62)
1.14
(0.12–10.88)
0.54
(0.12–2.38)
1.62
(0.47–5.59)
 Supraventricular or ventricular rhythm/tachycardia 1.40
(0.54–3.65)
1.69
(0.54–5.30)
1.66
(0.45–6.17)
3.23
(1.22–8.57)
1.60
(0.50–5.12)
0.53
(0.12–2.42)
0.70
(0.18–2.80)
0.56
(0.14–2.16)
1.20
(0.41–3.53)
 WPW 1.27
(0.55–2.93)
0.46
(0.16–1.36)
0.58
(0.12–2.77)
0.75
(0.28–2.00)
0.31
(0.10–1.00)
0.39
(0.10–1.44)
2.50
(0.67–9.33)
0.74
(0.16–3.36)
1.24
(0.58–2.65)
Minor arrhythmias 1.34
(1.13–1.59)
1.19
(1.03–1.38)
2.08
(1.69–2.57)
1.20
(1.02–1.41)
1.29
(1.08–1.52)
0.99
(0.77–1.28)
0.62
(0.50–0.77)
0.82
(0.63–1.07)
1.19
(1.04–1.37)
 Sinus bradycardia 2.21
(1.66–2.93)
1.47
(1.13–1.90)
1.41
(0.97–2.04)
1.29
(0.97–1.72)
0.71
(0.53–0.96)
0.65
(0.42–1.00)
0.67 (0.44–1.01) 0.64
(0.42–0.97)
2.03
(1.64–2.50)
 Sinus tachycardia 0.64
(0.40–1.02)
0.84
(0.59–1.20)
2.10
(1.15–3.83)
0.75
(0.46–1.22)
2.78
(1.82–4.24)
1.50
(0.78–2.88)
0.32
(0.21–0.50)
0.60
(0.37–0.97)
0.95
(0.62–1.44)
 Atrial or junctional or ventricular premature beats 0.96
(0.64–1.43)
1.75
(1.24–2.46)
5.74
(3.81–8.66)
1.17
(0.75–1.81)
1.25
(0.89–1.75)
0.79
(0.49–1.27)
0.87
(0.57–1.33)
0.89
(0.54–1.48)
1.11
(0.83–1.49)
 Incomplete RBBB 2.04
(1.33–3.15)
1.40
(0.97–2.03)
1.17
(0.65–2.10)
1.67
(1.12–2.49)
0.88
(0.60–1.30)
1.20
(0.68–2.10)
0.80
(0.50–1.29)
1.00
(0.56–1.76)
1.72
(1.26–2.35)
 Mobitz Type I AV conduction defect 1.79
(0.74–4.33)
1.75
(0.93–3.28)
3.43
(1.73–6.80)
1.12
(0.63–2.01)
1.92
(1.05–3.50)
1.01
(0.51–2.02)
0.63
(0.30–1.36)
0.39
(0.15–1.03)
0.42
(0.22–0.82)
 Short PR interval 0.57
(0.38–0.86)
0.76
(0.44–1.30)
0.42
(0.21–0.85)
1.35
(0.58–3.15)
0.67
(0.38–1.19)
1.00
(0.46–2.20)
0.79
(0.36–1.77)
0.81
(0.41–1.60)
0.84
(0.51–1.41)
  1. Note: Factors simultaneously adjusted to calculate the odds ratios included gender, age classes, smoking history, hypertension, blood glucose classes, BMI classes, hypercholesterolemia and rural/urban areas. The upper limit and the lower limit of the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were written in the brackets. Normal ECG was used as the reference. The middle age (45–59 years old) group and the older age (≥60 years old) group were compared with the young group (20–44 years old). The underlined odds ratios indicated the significant associations between the factors and the ECG findings. LBBB left bundle branch block, RBBB right bundle branch block, IVCD intravascular conducting delay, AV atrial-ventricular