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Table 5 Bivariable associations between low dose rivaroxaban eligible patients’ characteristics on low or standard dose of rivaroxaban

From: Characteristics and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving direct oral anticoagulants in off-label doses

 Low dose eligible that received low dose Rivaroxaban
(n = 3916)
Low dose eligible that received standard dose Rivaroxaban (n = 3904)P valueBefore Matching
Standardized Difference
After Matching
(N = 2703 vs 2703)
Standardized Difference
Year  0.2  
 2010–20127.2%6.7% 0.0210.028
 201318.3%17.6% 0.0170.0308
 201423.0%23.0% 0.0020.016
 201522.9%21.8% 0.0240.003
 2016–201728.6%30.9% 0.0500.058
Region  0.04  
 Midwest15.2%13.0% 0.0640.084
 Northeast1.2%1.1% 0.0090.016
 South73.0%75.0% 0.0440.028
 West10.5%10.9% 0.0130.061
Age Category  < 0.001  
 65–697.5%14.5% 0.2250
 70 to 7414.0%26.0% 0.3020
 75 to 7920.1%25.8% 0.1350
 80 to 8425.5%19.7% 0.1390
 85 to 8920.5%10.1% 0.2910
 90 or over12.4%3.9% 0.3110
Sex  0.0008  
 Female56.0%52.3% 0.0760
 Male44.0%47.7%   
Race Category  0.7  
 White84.5%83.4% 0.0310
 Black10.2%10.7% 0.0170
 Hispanic2.0%2.2% 0.0110
 Asian0.7%0.8% 0.0150
 Other2.7%3.0% 0.0190
 Smoker19.6%22.5%0.0010.0730.033
Weight Category (ICD9/ICD-10 codes for BMI)  < 0.0001  
 Under Weight1.9%1.2% 0.0530.025
 Healthy or Overweight18.4%16.1% 0.0620.008
 Obese or Severe Obese28.9%35.4% 0.1390.079
 Others50.8%47.3% 0.0700.062
Comorbid Conditions
 Prior Stroke29.1%25.1%< 0.0010.0890.051
 Prior major bleeding27.6%28.0%0.60.0110.026
 Diabetes55.9%57.2%0.20.0270.021
 Prior AMI10.4%6.7%< 0.0010.1320.119
 Liver Disease3.2%3.5%0.40.0190.017
 Heart Failure41.2%31.6%< 0.0010.2010.151
 Hypertension96.8%95.3%< 0.0010.0760.030
 Cardiomyopathy50.4%44.6%< 0.0010.1150.100
 Pulmonary Circulatory Dis17.2%14.2%< 0.0010.0820.021
 COPD38.5%37.0%0.170.0310.054
 Prior Blood Transfusion5.8%3.5%< 0.0010.1070.083
 Revascularization17.7%15.4%0.0070.0610.079
 Implantable Cardiac Device18.3%14.8%< 0.0010.0940.078
 Valve Disease42.2%38.1%< 0.0010.0840.064
Concurrent Drugs (+/− 90 days of initiating DOAC)
 SSRI/SNRI34.0%33.3%0.50.0140.034
 Strong and moderate p-gp inhibitors19.9%24.5%< 0.0010.1100.012
 Warfarin16.1%19.6%< 0.0010.0920.124
 Pgp inducers17.9%18.0%0.90.0030.018
 Strong p-gp and cyp3a4 dual inhibitors26.1%35.1%< 0.0010.1940.009
 P-gp and cyp3a4 inducers17.9%18.1%0.90.0030.017
 Ace inhibitors70.6%69.6%0.340.0220.025
 Angiotensin receptor blockers43.9%43.8%0.860.0040.004
 Beta blockers89.7%89.0%0.320.0230.019
 Calcium channel blockers67.6%64.4%=0.0030.0670.026
 Digoxin23.0%23.3%0.70.0080.003
 Proton pump inhibitors59.6%59.2%0.70.0080.026
 NSAIDS52.6%53.3%0.50.0150.022
 Antiplatelets31.8%28.4%0.0010.0740.067
 Insulin18.0%17.1%0.270.0250.087
 Statins81.8%81.6%0.790.0060.024
Renal Disease
 None or mild3.6%17.1%< 0.00010.4520.058
 Moderate (GFR 30–60 ml/min/1.73 m2)83.3%77.4% 0.1490.039
 Severe
(GFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2)
13.1%5.5% 0.2620.002
  1. Abbreviations: ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme, AMI Acute myocardial infarction, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICD International classification of diseases, NSAIDS Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, P-GP P-glycoprotein, CYP Cytochrome