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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included participants

From: Association of household secondhand smoke exposure and mortality risk in patients with heart failure

 ExposedUnexposedp
n88484 
Male, %47.347.70.943
Age, years66.1 + 17.170.8 + 12.60.001
Race, %  0.003
 Non-Hispanic White37.549.4 
 Non-Hispanic Black31.816.3 
 Mexican-American25.031.2 
 Other5.73.1 
Region, %  0.162
 Northeast12.512.4 
 Midwest14.817.6 
 South59.147.5 
 West13.622.5 
Urbanization Classificationa, %  0.002
 155.761.8 
 044.338.2 
Education level, %  0.759
 Education<12y65.567.2 
 Education≥12y34.532.8 
Economic Status, %
 Poverty income ratio < 264.568.20.509
 Poverty income ratio ≥ 235.531.8 
 Family income< 20,000 dollars60.4730.019
 Family income≥20,000 dollars39.627 
 Military service, %18.218.50.941
Household Size, %
 1 person0124 (25.6)< 0.001
 2 persons26 (29.6)223 (46.1) 
  ≥ 3 persons62 (70.5)137 (28.3) 
Medication, %
 ACEI17 (19.3)105 (21.7)0.617
 β-Blocker6 (6.82)79 (16.32)0.021
 Diuretic30 (34.1)216 (44.6)0.066
 Digitalis25 (29.4)144 (29.6)0.799
Ex-smoker, %51.046.60.443
Comorbidities, %
 Hypertensionb75.074.60.935
 Diabetesc33.035.10.694
 Hypercholesterolemiad71.670.30.819
 COPD/emphysemae22.730.20.157
 Chronic kidney diseasef71.576.80.309
 History of myocardial infarction39.852.20.033
Self-reported general health status, %  0.535
 Poor31.227.9 
 Good or fair68.872.1 
Hospitalization during last year43.238.90.445
See doctors > 5 times during last year45.451.40.311
Physical functioning:
Difficulty in walking 10 steps without rest, %
0.148
 Yes62.753.5 
 No37.346.5 
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg142.2 + 24.1141.7 + 23.70.849
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg77.3 + 14.373.8 + 13.50.028
Heart rate, bpm74.4 + 12.372.6 + 12.90.234
NHANES III phase, %  0.314
 1988–199154 (61.4)269 (55.6) 
 1991–199434 (38.6)215 (44.4) 
Mean follow-up, years9.3 ± 7.19.2 ± 6.90.920
  1. a1: Central or fringe counties of metro areas with a population of more than 1 million; 0: All other areas
  2. bBP ≥140/90 mmHg or on antihypertensive medications or self-report
  3. cHbA1c ≥ 6.5% or on diabetes medications or self-report
  4. dTotal serum cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or on anti-cholesterol medications or self-report
  5. eForced expiratory volume 1/forced vital capacity ratio < 0.7 or self-report
  6. fUrine albumin to urine creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g or estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73m2