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Table 1 Characteristics at 1st and 2nd health examinations of 5469 men and 6868 women, stratified by categories of change in waist circumference

From: Changes in waist circumference and risk of all-cause and CVD mortality: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort study

  Categories of change in waist circumference (WC) (cm)
Loss > 5 cm Loss > 2.5 and ≤ 5 cm Loss or gain ≤2.5 cm Gain > 2.5 and ≤ 5 cm Gain > 5 cm All
MEN, N (row %) 641 (11.7) 656 (12.0) 2211 (40.4) 926 (16.9) 1035 (18.9) 5469 100.0%
WC at 1HE (cm) 99.0 9.2 96.8 9.1 95.3 8.9 93.8 8.6 92.4 9.7 95.1 9.3
WC at 2HE (cm) 91.0 9.2 93.2 9.1 95.4 8.9 97.6 8.6 100.5 10.0 96.0 9.6
WC change (cm) −8.0 3.1 −3.7 0.7 0.1 1.4 3.8 0.7 8.1 2.9 0.8 5.2
Annual WC change (cm) −2.3 1.0 −1.1 0.3 0.0 0.4 1.1 0.3 2.2 0.9 0.2 1.5
Age at 1HE (years) 59.6 9.3 59.7 9.0 58.8 8.9 58.7 8.9 58.6 8.7 58.9 8.9
Age at 2HE (years) 62.8 9.4 62.8 9.1 61.9 9.0 61.9 9.0 61.8 8.7 62.1 9.0
Age change (years) 3.2 0.8 3.1 0.8 3.1 0.8 3.2 0.8 3.3 0.8 3.2 0.8
Weight at 1HE (kg) 81.7 10.7 80.4 10.9 80.0 10.8 79.8 10.2 80.2 11.7 80.2 10.9
Weight at 2HE (kg) 79.0 10.5 79.9 11.0 81.0 11.2 82.4 10.7 84.4 12.8 81.5 11.5
Weight change (kg) −2.7 3.6 −0.5 2.9 1.1 2.6 2.6 2.7 4.2 3.5 1.3 3.6
BMI at 1HE (kg/m2) 26.8 3.2 26.5 3.1 26.3 3.1 26.2 3.0 26.3 3.3 26.3 3.1
BMI at 2HE (kg/m2) 26.0 3.1 26.4 3.2 26.7 3.2 27.1 3.1 27.8 3.6 26.9 3.3
BMI change (kg/m2) −0.8 1.2 −0.1 0.9 0.4 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.2 0.5 1.2
Education - 1HE
 None 172 26.8 164 25.0 573 25.9 248 26.8 287 27.7 1444 26.4%
 O level and above 469 73.2 492 75.0 1638 74.1 678 73.2 748 72.3 4025 73.6%
Social class - 1HE
 Non-manual 412 64.3 414 63.1 1352 61.2 585 63.2 632 61.1 3395 62.1%
 Manual 229 35.7 242 36.9 859 38.8 341 36.8 403 38.9 2074 37.9%
Smoking status - 1HE
 Current 66 10.3 60 9.2 185 8.4 86 9.3 110 10.6 507 9.3%
 Former 321 50.1 341 52.0 1200 54.3 477 51.5 559 54.0 2898 53.0%
 Never 254 39.6 255 38.9 826 37.4 363 39.2 366 35.4 2064 37.7%
Smoking status - 2HE
 Current 67 10.5 59 9.0 166 7.5 65 7.0 81 7.8 438 8.0%
 Former 320 49.9 342 52.1 1221 55.2 498 53.8 589 56.9 2970 54.3%
 Never 254 39.6 255 38.9 824 37.3 363 39.2 365 35.3 2061 37.7%
Physical activity - 1HE
 Inactive 193 30.1 160 24.4 601 27.2 233 25.2 257 24.8 1444 26.4%
 Moderately inactive 163 25.4 196 29.9 529 23.9 216 23.3 249 24.1 1353 24.7%
 Moderately active 156 24.3 159 24.2 541 24.5 249 26.9 272 26.3 1377 25.2%
 Active 129 20.1 141 21.5 540 24.4 228 24.6 257 24.8 1295 23.7%
Deaths during follow-up 218 34.0 196 29.9 585 26.5 246 26.6 306 29.6 1551 28.4%
Lost weight in last 5 years (2HE)
 Diet 61 22.9 42 15.8 92 34.6 28 10.5 43 16.2 266 4.9%
 Illness 28 21.7 7 5.4 51 39.5 17 13.2 26 20.2 129 2.4%
WOMEN, N (row %) 873 (12.7) 875 (12.7) 2596 (37.8) 1131 (16.5) 1393 (20.3) 6868 100.0%
WC at 1HE (cm) 87.2 11.4 82.6 10.5 80.0 9.5 79.1 9.7 79.6 9.2 81.0 10.2
WC at 2HE (cm) 78.8 10.7 78.9 10.5 80.1 9.6 82.8 9.7 88.0 10.0 81.9 10.5
WC change (cm) −8.4 3.5 −3.7 0.8 0.1 1.4 3.7 0.7 8.4 3.3 0.8 5.6
Annual WC change (cm) −2.4 1.2 −1.1 0.3 0.0 0.4 1.1 0.3 2.4 1.1 0.2 1.6
Age at 1HE (years) 58.7 9.0 58.5 9.2 58.0 8.9 57.4 8.6 57.5 8.5 58.0 8.8
Age at 2HE (years) 61.9 9.2 61.6 9.3 61.2 9.0 60.5 8.6 60.6 8.6 61.1 8.9
Age change (years) 3.1 0.8 3.2 0.8 3.1 0.8 3.1 0.8 3.2 0.8 3.2 0.8
Weight at 1HE (kg) 70.1 12.8 67.8 11.7 66.2 10.4 66.7 10.6 68.5 10.7 67.5 11.1
Weight at 2HE (kg) 67.7 12.1 67.3 11.7 67.3 10.8 69.2 11.2 73.0 12.0 68.9 11.6
Weight change (kg) −2.4 4.8 −0.5 3.3 1.1 2.9 2.5 3.2 4.5 4.2 1.4 4.1
BMI at 1HE (kg/m2) 26.9 4.6 26.0 4.3 25.5 3.8 25.6 3.9 26.3 3.9 25.9 4.0
BMI at 2HE (kg/m2) 26.1 4.3 26.0 4.4 26.0 4.0 26.6 4.2 28.1 4.4 26.6 4.3
BMI change (kg/m2) −0.8 1.8 −0.1 1.2 0.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.9 1.6 0.7 1.6
Education - 1HE
 None 291 33.3 321 36.7 983 37.9 402 35.5 528 37.9 2525 36.8%
 O level and above 582 66.7 554 63.3 1613 62.1 729 64.5 865 62.1 4343 63.2%
Social class - 1HE
 Non-manual 537 61.5 558 63.8 1659 63.9 727 64.3 877 63.0 4358 63.4%
 Manual 336 38.5 317 36.2 937 36.1 404 35.7 516 37.0 2510 36.6%
Smoking status - 1HE
 Current 94 10.8 72 8.2 224 8.6 100 8.8 128 9.2 618 9.0%
 Former 290 33.2 287 32.8 794 30.6 329 29.1 469 33.7 2169 31.6%
 Never 489 56.0 516 59.0 1578 60.8 702 62.1 796 57.1 4081 59.4%
Smoking status - 2HE
 Current 88 10.1 70 8.0 206 7.9 76 6.7 105 7.5 545 7.9%
 Former 297 34.0 289 33.0 814 31.4 353 31.2 494 35.5 2247 32.7%
 Never 488 55.9 516 59.0 1576 60.7 702 62.1 794 57.0 4076 59.4%
Physical activity - 1HE
 Inactive 234 26.8 236 27.0 622 24.0 245 21.7 369 26.5 1706 24.8%
 Moderately inactive 282 32.3 275 31.4 874 33.7 390 34.5 457 32.8 2278 33.2%
 Moderately active 220 25.2 206 23.5 631 24.3 291 25.7 328 23.6 1676 24.4%
 Active 137 15.7 158 18.1 469 18.1 205 18.1 239 17.2 1208 17.6%
Deaths during follow-up 212 24.3 181 20.7 487 18.8 176 15.6 259 18.6 1315 19.2%
Menopausal status (2HE)
 Pre-menopausal 51 5.8 55 6.3 170 6.6 67 5.9 86 6.2 429 6.3%
 Early peri-menopausal 26 3.0 34 3.9 80 3.1 63 5.6 48 3.5 251 3.7%
Late peri-menopausal (1–5 y) 149 17.1 168 19.2 504 19.4 213 18.8 288 20.7 1322 19.3%
Post-menopausal (> 5 y) 647 74.1 618 70.6 1842 71.0 788 69.7 971 69.7 4866 70.9%
Lost weight in last 5 years (2HE)
 Diet 179 23.6 108 14.3 233 30.8 94 12.4 143 18.9 757 11.0%
 Illness 33 19.5 25 14.8 62 36.7 26 15.4 23 13.6 169 2.5%
  1. Values are mean and SD or frequency and percentage
  2. 1HE 1st health examination, 2HE 2nd health examination, BMI body mass index