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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the patients with and without contrast-induced nephropathy

From: CHA2DS2-VASC score as a preprocedural predictor of contrast-induced nephropathy among patients with chronic total occlusion undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a single-center experience

Variable contrast-induced nephropathy P-value
Yes (n = 39) NO (n = 200)
Age (years), mean (SD) 58.4 ± 8.4 64.5 ± 14.7 P<0.001
Gender (female), n(%) 17 (43.6) 65 (32.5) 0.13
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 24.6 ± 2.7 24.7 ± 2.4 0.85
Diabetes Mellitus, n(%) 11 (28.2) 29 (14.5) 0.04
Hypertension, n(%) 21 (53.8) 40 (20.0) P<0.001
Stroke history, n(%) 5 (12.8) 3 (1.5) 0.004
Current smoker, n(%) 7 (17.9) 63 (31.5) 0.06
Previous MI, n(%) 15 (38.5) 50 (25.0) 0.11
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120.6 ± 12.6 126.5 ± 13.8 0.009
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74.5 ± 9.2 72.1 ± 8.1 P<0.001
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 54.4 ± 12.1 46.1 ± 9.7 P<0.001
LVEF 0.47 ± 0.07 0.44 ± 0.06 0.02
NYHA 2–3 on admision 7 (17.9) 30 (15.0) 0.40
Total Cholesterol (mg/dl) 4.4 ± 0.7 4.3 ± 1.1 0.33
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 0.5 2.5 ± 0.6 0.007
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.3 0.09
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.4 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 1.3 0.35
Fasting Glucose (mmol/L) 5.4 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 1.3 0.004
Baseline eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 94.6 ± 17.6 92.7 ± 20.3 0.53
Baseline Creatinine (μmol/l) 69.2 ± 18.0 65.3 ± 15.6 0.21
Uric acid (μmol/l) 355.4 ± 72.4 326.9 ± 69.4 0.02
Total amount of conrrast (ml) 299.2 ± 105.2 227.1 ± 98.3 P<0.001
The retrograde approach, n(%) 6 (15.4) 51 (25.5) 0.12
Transradial + transfemoral approach, n(%) 12 (30.8) 68 (34.0) 0.85
Procedural duration (min) 91.0 ± 50.0 120.9 ± 48.4 P<0.001
IABP, n(%) 3 (7.7) 14 (7.0) 0.75
IVUS, n(%) 4 (10.3) 14 (7.0) 0.51
Stent number 2.2 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.6 0.96
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, n(%) 18 (46.2) 31 (15.5) P<0.001
CHA2DS2-VASc Score 3.1 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.1 P<0.001
  1. MI myocardial infarction, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association (classification), LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, IVUS intravascular ultrasound