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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study population according to CHA2DS2-VASC

From: CHA2DS2-VASC score as a preprocedural predictor of contrast-induced nephropathy among patients with chronic total occlusion undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a single-center experience

Variable CHA2DS2-VASc Score p-value
low risk (1 point, n = 64) intermediate risk (2–3 points, n = 135) high risk (≥4 points, n = 40)
Age (years), mean (SD) 53.0 ± 7.5 59.1 ± 6.4 67.9 ± 7.9 P<0.001
Gender (female), n(%) 0 63 (47.4) 19 (47.5) P<0.001
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 25.3 ± 1.8 24.4 ± 2.9 24.3 ± 2.6 0.04
Diabetes Mellitus, n(%) 0 20 (14.8) 20 (50.0) P<0.001
Hypertension, n(%) 0 34 (25.2) 27 (67.5) P<0.001
Stroke history, n(%) 0 2 (1.5) 6 (15.0) P<0.001
Current smoker, n(%) 17 (26.6) 45 (33.3) 8 (20.0) 0.23
Previous MI, n(%) 19 (29.2) 46 (34.1) 11 (25.5) 0.67
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.1 ± 13.7 121.8 ± 12.1 124.6 ± 14.2 0.28
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74.7 ± 10.0 74.2 ± 9.3 72.4 ± 5.8 0.015
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 44.4 ± 10.2 47.6 ± 9.7 52.2 ± 12.2 0.001
LVEF 0.51 ± 0.04 0.45 ± 0.06 0.43 ± 0.04 P<0.01
NYHA 2–3 on admision 0 20 (14.8) 17 (42.5) P<0.01
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.2 ± 1.0 4.3 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 0.9 0.70
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.6 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 0.6 0.23
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.4 0.25
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.6 ± 1.2 1.5 ± 1.3 1.3 ± 0.8 0.59
Fasting Glucose (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.5 5.5 ± 0.8 5.8 ± 1.0 0.027
eGFR baseline (ml/min/1.73m2) 102.0 ± 13.8 92.8 ± 17.0 89.5 ± 17.6 P<0.001
eGFR after PCI (ml/min/1.73m2) 98.4 ± 14.2 87.4 ± 19.5 76.2 ± 21.3 P<0.001
First Day Creatinine (μmol/l) 68.8 ± 19.2 69.5 ± 16.9 65.0 ± 17.6 0.37
Uric acid (μmol/l) 330.3 ± 69.9 330.8 ± 69.8 336.1 ± 75.6 0.90
Total amount of conrrast (ml) 181.8 ± 63.5 241.8 ± 104.0 320.3 ± 92.5 P<0.001
Total time of procedure (min) 74.4 ± 45.6 96.1 ± 47.7 129.7 ± 51.6 P<0.001
The retrograde approach, n(%) 14 (21.5) 29 (21.5) 14 (35.0) 0.19
Transradial + transfemoral approach, n(%) 21 (32.8) 42 (31.1) 17 (42.5) 0.40
IABP, n(%) 4 (6.3) 6 (4.4) 7 (17.5) 0.02
IVUS, n(%) 4 (6.3) 9 (6.7) 5 (12.5) 0.42
Stent number 1.9 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 1.1 P<0.001
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, n(%) 12 (18.8) 24 (17.8) 13 (32.5) 0.12
CIN 4 (6.3) 20 (14.8) 15 (37.5) P<0.001
  1. MI myocardial infarction, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association (classification), LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, IVUS intravascular ultrasound, CIN contrast induced nephropathy