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Table 4 Significant co-variates associated with intermediate groups in different regions

From: Regional variations in trajectories of long-term readmission rates among patients in England with heart failure

Intermediate group OR [95% CI] P value
London
 Hypertension 2.80 [1.95–4.01] 0.003
 Chronic renal disease 1.65 [1.27–2.14] 0.05
 Chronic respiratory disease 1.63 [1.27–2.10] 0.05
 Number of patients with previous GP visit for HF medication review 0.51 [0.37–0.71] 0.04
 Older age 0.35 [0.26–0.46] 0.002
East of England
 Diabetes 0.32 [0.18–0.54] 0.03
 Chronic respiratory disease 0.32 [0.19–0.54] 0.03
 Chronic renal disease 0.21 [0.12–0.37] 0.005
North-East
 Cardiac congenital conditions 4.31 [2.51–7.39] 0.007
 Hypertension 3.90 [3.32–4.57] <  0.001
 Ischaemic heart disease 2.36 [1.79–3.13] 0.002
 Mood disorders 2.32 [2.01–2.66] <  0.001
 Chronic renal diseases 2.03 [1.84–2.25] <  0.001
 Valvular heart disease 1.95 [1.73–2.20] <  0.001
 Cardiac arrhythmias 1.93 [1.75–2.14] <  0.001
 Dementia 1.80 [1.57–2.08] <  0.001
 Respiratory conditions 1.54 [1.39–1.70] <  0.001
 Anaemia 1.54 [1.38–1.72] <  0.001
 Stroke 1.35 [1.20–1.52] 0.012
 Atrial fibrillation 1.31 [1.19–1.45] 0.0099
 History of smoking 0.87 [0.81–0.93] 0.048
 Number of patients with increased out-of-hours GP visits (>90th percentile) 0.64 [0.55–0.75] 0.0028
 GP visit for renal monitoring 0.62 [0.53–0.72] 0.0016
 Number of patients with previous GP visit for HF medication review 0.62 [0.51–0.76] 0.017
 Older age 0.57 [0.53–0.60] <  0.001
  > 3 hospital admissions in preceding year of diagnosis of HF vs. <=2) 0.34 [0.25–0.45] <  0.001
 HF diagnosis as an inpatient 0.32 [0.28–0.37] <  0.001
North-West
 Hypertension 11.36 [5.53–23.34] <  0.001
 Chronic renal disease 5.81 [4.10–8.25] <  0.001
 Cardiac arrhythmias 4.26 [3.10–5.87] <  0.001
 Atrial fibrillation 2.72 [1.95–3.78] 0.003
 Mood disorder 2.61 [1.79–3.82] 0.012
 Number of patients with GP visit for flu vaccination 2.51 [1.80–3.49] 0.005
 Anaemia 1.97 [1.46–2.66] 0.033
 Presentation of atypical signs and symptoms before the diagnosis of HF 0.42 [0.28–0.64] 0.04
 HF diagnosis as an inpatient 0.25 [0.16–0.38] 0.001
 Older age 0.19 [0.13–0.27] <  0.001
South-Central
 Chronic respiratory disease 0.36 [0.23–0.56] 0.024
 Cardiac arrhythmia 0.25 [0.15–0.43] 0.011
 Dementia 0.24 [0.14–0.44] 0.016
 Hypertension 0.22 [0.13–0.37] 0.004
 Chronic renal disease 0.17 [0.11–0.29] <  0.001
South-East
 Hypertension 5.37 [2.97–9.68] 0.004
 Older age 0.23 [0.16–0.35] <  0.001
 HF diagnosis as an inpatient 0.15 [0.11–0.21] <  0.001
West-Midlands
 Hypertension 3.16 [2.25–4.44] <  0.001
 Chronic respiratory disease 2.01 [1.55–2.61] 0.007
 Atrial fibrillation 1.86 [1.42–2.44] 0.023
 Valvular heart disease 1.82 [1.36–2.44] 0.042
 HF diagnosis as an inpatient 0.42 [0.32–0.57] 0.003
 Older age 0.36 [0.27–0.48] <  0.001
South-West
 Hypertension 4.81 [3.39–6.82] <  0.001
 Atrial fibrillation 1.80 [1.38–2.36] 0.03
 HF diagnosis as an inpatient 0.39 [0.27–0.56] 0.01
 Number of patients with previous GP visit for HF medication review 0.28 [0.19–0.41] <  0.001