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Table 4 Association of frequency of sleep disturbances within 4 weeks prior to AMI (categorization 2 and binary split) and long-term mortality in male and female patients

From: Association of sleep disturbances within 4 weeks prior to incident acute myocardial infarction and long-term survival in male and female patients: an observational study from the MONICA/KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry

  Men (n = 2511; 318 deaths) Women (n = 828; 131 deaths)
HR [95% CI] p-valuea HR [95% CI] p-valuea
  Frequency of sleep disturbances  
Age-adjusted model never 1 Ref. 0.0183 1 Ref. 0.7162
occasionally 1.52 [1.11–2.07]   1.12 [0.68–1.82]  
frequently 1.29 [0.97–1.72]   0.90 [0.61–1.33]  
Full modelb never 1 Ref. 0.1256 1 Ref. 0.7163
occasionally 1.37 [1.00–1.87]   1.10 [0.67–1.82]  
frequently 1.19 [0.89–1.59]   0.89 [0.59–1.33]  
  Sleep disturbances at any time  
Age-adjusted model no 1 Ref.   1 Ref.  
yes 1.38 [1.10–1.74] 0.0070 0.96 [0.68–1.36] 0.8330
Full modelb no 1 Ref.   1 Ref.  
yes 1.26 [1.00–1.60] 0.0571 0.95 [0.67–1.36] 0.7854
  1. AMI acute myocardial infarction, CI confidence interval, HR Hazard Ratio
  2. ap-value obtained from Likelihood Ratio test for overall significance of ‘frequency of sleep disturbances’ in the respective model
  3. badjusted for age (cont.), low education (< 9 years), married, employment status, ever smoking, BMI (cont.), hypertension, angina, diabetes, dyslipidemia, stroke, type of infarction, any revascularization treatment (coronary artery bypass surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with/without stenting, or thrombolysis), all four evidence based medications at discharge (antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, ACEIs/ARBs (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/Angiotensin receptor blockers), statins) and year of MI