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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study participants

From: Association of glycemic status and segmental left ventricular wall thickness in subjects without prior cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study

  All Control Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes
N = 359 N = 223 N = 92 N = 44
Age (years) 56.1 ± 9.1 54.3 ± 8.9 58.1 ± 8.8 61.4 ± 8.3
Male gender 205 (57.1%) 115 (51.6%) 58 (63.0%) 32 (72.7%)
BMI (kg/m2) 27.9 ± 4.8 26.5 ± 4.2 30.3 ± 4.6 30.2 ± 5.1
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120.3 ± 16.9 116.5 ± 15.2 124.7 ± 15.5 130.1 ± 21.2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75.3 ± 10.1 73.7 ± 9.2 78.0 ± 9.7 78.0 ± 13.2
Prehypertension 94 (26.2%) 61 (27.4%) 26 (28.3%) 7 (15.9%)
Hypertension 117 (32.6%) 45 (20.2%) 41 (44.6%) 31 (70.5%)
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.7 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.6 8.0 ± 2.3a
Fasting insulin (pmol/L) 65.4 ± 41.1 51.6 ± 26.7 86.9 ± 44.6 91.7 ± 60.0b
HbA1c (%) 5.6 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 0.3 5.6 ± 0.3 6.7 ± 1.4
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 1.0 5.6 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 0.8 5.5 ± 1.2
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.6 ± 0.5 1.7 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.6 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 1.1
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.5 ± 1.0 1.2 ± 0.7 1.7 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 1.4
Smoking
 Never-smoker 130 (36.2%) 88 (39.5%) 28 (30.4%) 14 (31.8%)
 Ex-smoker 156 (43.5%) 87 (39.0%) 46 (50.0%) 23 (52.3%)
 Smoker 73 (20.3%) 48 (21.5%) 18 (19.6%) 7 (15.9%)
Antihypertensive medication 85 (23.7%) 35 (15.7%) 28 (30.4%) 22 (50.0%)
  1. Values are arithmetic means ± standard deviations for continuous variables and number of subjects (percentage of respective group) for categorical outcomes
  2. aBased on N = 43 subjects with type 2 diabetes
  3. bBased on N = 42 subjects with type 2 diabetes