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Table 3 Comparison results of SI and AP diameters of typical pattern 4 PVs in AF patients and CG (mean ± SD)

From: Pulmonary vein anatomy variants as a biomarker of atrial fibrillation – CT angiography evaluation

Pulmonary veins AF (n = 224) CG (n = 40) p
SI in mm
 RSPV 18.5 ± 2.0 14.8 ± 2.9 < 0.0001
 RIPV 16.8 ± 1.9 13.9 ± 3.4 < 0.0001
 LSPV 18.2 ± 2.6 15.1 ± 2.3 < 0.0001
 LIPV 16.1 ± 3.1 13.7 ± 2.7 < 0.0001
AP in mm
 RSPV 16.5 ± 3.0 13.7 ± 2.9 < 0.0001
 RIPV 15.2 ± 2.1 13.6 ± 3.4 < 0.0001
 LSPV 14.7 ± 2.7 12.0 ± 2.5 < 0.0001
 LIPV 12.4 ± 4.3 10.3 ± 3.7 < 0.001
  1. RSPV right superior pulmonary vein, RIPV right inferior pulmonary vein, LSPV left superior pulmonary vein, LIPV left inferior pulmonary vein
  2. AF (+): right superior vs. right inferior PV - SI p < 0.0001, AP p < 0.02
  3. left superior vs. left inferior PV - SI p < 0.0001, AP p < 0.0001,
  4. GC: right superior vs. right inferior PV - SI p < 0.005, AP NS,
  5. left superior vs left inferior PV - SI p < 0.05, AP p < 0.05