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Table 4 Summary of RHD prevalence studies using echocardiography conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 27,000 children have been screened for RHD using echocardiography in this region. The variability in findings of RHD prevalence between countries is not fully understood

From: Prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Zambian school children

Year reported Country (location) Population studied Methodology RHD prevalence
1996 Kenya (Eldoret) [49] 1150 school children in grades 1–8 in two schools Colour-flow echocardiography and a portable generator using investigator-defined criteria Definite 0.3%
2007 Mozambique (Maputo) [30] 2170 randomly selected children aged 6–17 years in six schools Portable echocardiography at schools using investigator-defined criteria 3%
2012 Uganda (Kampala) [29] 4869 children aged 5–16 years in six randomly selected schools Portable echocardiography at schools using 2006 WHO/NIH criteria Possible 1%; probable 0.4%; definite 0.2%
2014 Eritrea (multiple cities) [50] 684 adolescents aged 13–24 randomly selected from nine schools Portable echocardiography at schools using investigator-defined criteria Suspected 3.3%; definite 4%
2015 Senegal (Dakar) [36] 2019 children aged 5–18 years in 16 schools Portable echocardiography at schools using WHF criteria Borderline 1.1%; definite 0.05%
2015 Ethiopia (Jimma) [8] 2000 children aged 4–24 years from randomly selected schools Echocardiography at a university-affiliated field research center using WHF criteria Borderline 1.4%; definite 1.7%
2015 South Africa (Cape Town) [8] 2720 children aged 4–24 years in randomly selected schools Portable echocardiography in a mobile clinic using WHF criteria Borderline 1.5%; definite 0.5%
2015 South Africa (Free State and Northern Cape) [51] 1015 children aged 14–22 years in grades 10–12 Portable echocardiography at schools using investigator-defined criteria Definite 0.5%
2016 Malawi (Lilongwe) [7] 1450 children aged 5–16 years in three schools and surrounding communities Portable echocardiography at schools and in surrounding communities using WHF criteria Borderline 2.7%; definite 0.7%
2016 Uganda (Kampala) [52] 488 HIV-infected children aged 5–18 years from an outpatient clinic Echocardiography at medical centers using WHF criteria Borderline 0.4%; definite 0.4%
2016 Ethiopia (6 cities) [6] 3238 children aged 6–18 years in 28 randomly selected schools Portable echocardiography at schools using WHF criteria Borderline 0.5%; definite 1.4%
2017 Rwanda (Gasabo district) [53] 2501 children aged 6–16 years in 10 schools Portable echocardiography at schools using WHF criteria Borderline 0.5%; definite 0.2%