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Table 1 Characteristics of study population by quartiles of dietary diversity score (DDS)

From: Dietary diversity score is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome

Quartiles of DDS
  1st (n = 37) 2nd (n = 34) 3rd (n = 46) 4th (n = 43)
Age (years) 46.14 ± 9.27 42.45 ± 9.63 43.81 ± 9.91 43.22 ± 11.40
Men [n (%)] 67.6% 58.1% 62.8% 70%
BMI (kg/m2) 29.05 ± 4.90a 29.33 ± 3.81 30.53 ± 4.90 31.59 ± 4.54
WC (cm) 103.36 ± 9.67 102.00 ± 7.68b 104.86 ± 8.16 106.83 ± 7.69
WHR 0.94 ± 4.90 0.90 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.05 0.95 ± 0.08
Obesity (%)c 15.9 17.4 29 37.7
Educational attainment d
  < 12 years 8.6% 21.9% 2.3% 5%
12 45.7% 34.4% 41.9% 25%
  > 12 years 45.7% 43.8% 55.8% 70%
Smoking [n (%)] 17.61 12.90 7 3
Grain diversity score 0.67 ± 0.15e 0.70 ± 0.21 0.83 ± 0.17 0.90 ± 0.26
Fruits diversity score 0.65 ± 0.48e 1.12 ± 0.33 1.23 ± 0.43 1.50 ± 0.51
Vegetable diversity score 0.48 ± 0.28e 0.68 ± 0.28 0.77 ± 0.32 0.96 ± 0.31
Dairy diversity score 1.16 ± 0.37e 1.66 ± 0.50 1.70 ± 0.36 1.85 ± 0.28
Meat diversity score 0.21 ± 0.34e 0.25 ± 0.13 0.39 ± 0.14 0.81 ± 0.43
Energy density (ED) 0.92 ± 0.25e 0.89 ± 0.18 0.87 ± 0.18 0.90 ± 0.24
  1. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist to hip ratio; a,b P < 0.05 compared with other quartiles P < 0.001; c,d χ2 = 27.62, P < 0.001 and χ2 = 14.62, P = 0.016 respectively; e P < 0.001 compared with other quartiles