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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and long-term mortality of patients with AMI by anemia status (n = 2011)

From: Association between admission anemia and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction: results from the MONICA/KORA myocardial infarction registry

  Anemiaa (n = 283) Non-anemiad (n = 1728) p Value
Total Mild anemiab
(n = 183)
Moderate to severe anemiac
(n = 100)
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age (years) 64.8 ± 8.5 64.5 ± 8.5 65.4 ± 8.4 60.1 ± 9.6 < 0.0001
 Female 70 (24.7) 43 (23.5) 27 (27.0) 440 (25.5) 0.7838
 Living alone, (n = 1939) 54 (20.7) 35 (20.2) 19 (21.6) 291 (17.34) 0.4057
Risk factors and medical history
 BMI (kg/m2), (n = 1934) 27.2 ± 4.8 27.4 ± 4.8 26.8 ± 4.9 28.0 ± 4.5 0.0272
 Smoking status, (n = 1886)      < 0.0001
  Smoker 55 (22.7) 36 (22.5) 19 (23.2) 661 (40.2)  
  Ex-smoker 102 (41.2) 70 (43.8) 32 (39.0) 515 (31.3)  
  Never smoker 85 (35.1) 54 (33.8) 31 (37.8) 468 (28.5)  
 Prior myocardial infarction 41 (14.5) 24 (13.2) 17 (17.0) 165 (9.6) 0.0228
 Angina pectoris 71 (25.1) 51 (27.9) 20 (20.0) 282 (16.3) 0.0004
 Hypertension 230 (81.3) 142 (77.6) 88 (88.0) 1367 (79.1) 0.0830
 Hyperlipidemia 164 (58.0) 107 (58.5) 57 (57.0) 1118 (64.7) 0.0884
 Diabetes 123 (43.5) 68 (37.2) 55 (55.0) 488 (28.2) < 0.0001
 Stroke 38 (13.4) 21 (11.5) 17 (17.0) 85 (4.9) < 0.0001
Laboratory markers
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.2 ± 1.6 12.1 ± 0.6 9.5 ± 1.3 14.8 ± 1.3 < 0.0001
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 63.9 (43.4–85.5) 65.9 (47.4–83.4) 60.3 (35.9–88.4) 78.3 (64.4–92.3) < 0.0001
 eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 122 (43.1) 73 (39.9) 49 (49.0) 329 (19.0) < 0.0001
Clinical characteristics
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 17 120 ± 16 121 ± 19 118 ± 15 0.0746
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 68 ± 10 68 ± 10 67 ± 11 69 ± 10 0.1236
 Heart rate (bpm) 73 ± 11 73 ± 11 73 ± 10 71 ± 10 0.0004
 AMI type      < 0.0001
  STEMI 63 (22.3) 46 (25.14) 17 (17.0) 616 (35.6)  
  NSTEMI 194 (68.6) 120 (65.6) 74 (74.0) 1019 (59.0)  
  Bundle branch block 26 (9.2) 17 (9.3) 9 (9.0) 93 (5.4)  
 LVEF (n = 1188)      0.0021
  LVEF < 30% 4 (2.9) 3 (1.6) 1 (1.0) 38 (2.2)  
  LVEF ≥30% 132 (46.6) 87 (47.5) 45 (45.0) 1014 (58.7)  
  Missing 147 (51.9) 93 (50.8) 54 (54.0) 676 (39.1)  
Medication at discharge
 Antiplatelet agents 263 (92.9) 172 (94.0) 91 (91.0) 1686 (97.6) < 0.0001
 ACEIs/ARBs 225 (79.5) 149 (81.4) 76 (76.0) 1493 (86.4) 0.0045
 Beta-blocker 271 (95.8) 175 (95.6) 96 (96.0) 1728 (96.1) 0.9595
 Statins 239 (84.5) 161 (88.0) 78 (78.0) 1636 (94.7) < 0.0001
 4 EBM 178 (62.9) 125 (68.3) 53 (53.0) 1358 (78.6) < 0.0001
 Calcium channel blocker 49 (17.3) 33 (18.0) 16 (16.0) 216 (12.5) 0.0758
 Diuretics 184(65.0) 115 (62.8) 69 (69.0) 877 (50.8) < 0.0001
 Insulin 57 (20.1) 30 (16.4) 27 (27.0) 147 (8.5) < 0.0001
 Other antidiabetic agents 51 (18.0) 31 (16.9) 20 (20.0) 225 (13.0) 0.0594
In-hospital treatment
 PCI 139 (49.1) 102 (55.7) 37 (37.0) 1335 (77.3) < 0.0001
 CABG 66 (23.3) 39 (21.3) 27 (27.0) 235 (13.6) < 0.0001
Any in-hospital complicatione 51 (18.0) 31 (16.9) 20 (20.0) 229 (13.3) 0.0773
Outcome
 All-cause mortality 85 (30.0) 48 (26.2) 37 (37.0) 156 (9.0) < 0.0001
  1. AMI acute myocardial infarction, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin-receptor blocker, BMI body mass index, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, EBM evidence-based medications (antiplatelet agents, ACEIs/ARBs, beta-blockers, statins), eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention
  2. Data are presented as n (%), mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range (25%-quartile – 75%-quartile))
  3. a Anemia: Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of < 12 g/dL in women, Hb concentration of < 13 g/dL in men
  4. b Mild anemia: Hb concentration of 11 g/dL to < 12 g/dL in women, Hb concentration of 11 g/dL to < 13 g/dL in men
  5. c Moderate to severe anemia: Hb concentration of < 11 g/dL in men and women
  6. d Non-anemia: Hb concentration of ≥12 g/dL in women, Hb concentration of ≥13 g/dL in men
  7. e Any in-hospital complication includes at least one of the following: cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, re-infarction, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, cardiogenic shock