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Table 2 Detailed electrocardiographical and imaging characteristics of ECG-positive and ECG-negative ARVC/D patients including Epsilon waves, upslope S-wave, Signal Average ECG measurements (SAECG) including fractional QRS duration (fqrsd), low amplitude signal under 40 microV in the latter part of QRS (LAS40) and root mean square amplitude in the last 40milliseconds (RMS40), repolarization abnormalities and echocardiogram/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (RVEDV)

From: Right precordial-directed electrocardiographical markers identify arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the absence of conventional depolarization or repolarization abnormalities

  ARVD/C (n = 155) ARVD/C
ECG-positive (N = 84)
ARVD/C
ECG-negative (N = 66)
P-value ECG positive/ negative
ECG: Depolarization
- Epsilon waves 13 (8.4%) 13 (15.5%) 0 (0.0%) <0.001
- upslope S-wave ≥55 ms V1,V2 or V3 17 (11.0%) 17 (20.2%) 0 (0.0%) <0.001
Bundle branch blocks 22 (14.1%) 17 (20.2%) 0 (0.0%) 0.035
SAECG performed (% total) 63 (40.7%) 32 (38.1%) 31 (41.7%) 0.515
- fQRSd ≥114 ms (% of SAECG) 33 (52.4%) 17 (53.1%) 16 (51.6%) 1.000
- LAS40 ≥ 38 ms (% of SAECG) 31 (49.2%) 18 (56.3%) 13 (41.9%) 0.317
- RMS40 ≤ 20 μV (% of SAECG) 28 (44.4%) 13 (40.6%) 15 (48.4%) 0.616
ECG: Repolarization
- T-wave inversions V1-V3 > 14 years no RBBB 54 (34.8%) 54 (64.3%) 0 (0.0%) <0.001
- T-wave inversions V1-V4 with RBBB 12 (7.7%) 12 (14.3%) 0 (0.0%) <0.001
- T-wave inversions V1 and V2 or in V4,V5,V6 8 (5.2%) 8 (9.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0.008
Imaging
Echocardiograms performed (% total) 155 (100.0%) 84 (100.0%) 66 (100.0%) 1.000
- Regional akinesia/dyskinesia/aneurysm (% echo) 111 (71.6%) 65 (77.4%) 43 (65.2%) 0.108
MRI’s performed (% total) 124 (80.0%) 72 (85.7%) 52 (73.2%) 0.070
- Regional akinesia/dyskinesia/aneurysm (% MRI) 89 (71.8%) 58 (80.6%) 31 (59.6%) 0.272
- RVEDV ≥110 ml/m2 (M), 100 ml/m2 (F) (%MRI) 65 (52.4%) 49 (68.1%) 16 (30.8%) <0.001
- RVEDV ≥100 ml/m2 but <110 ml/m2 (M), ≥90 ml/m2 but <100 ml/m2 (F) (%MRI) 24 (19.4%) 10 (11.9%) 14 (26.9%) 0.106