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Table 2 Sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial factors in smokers and quitters at follow-upa after the coronary event

From: Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events

Study factors Quitted after the index event (n = 167) Persistent smokers (n = 230) p-value
Sociodemographic factors
 Age at index event, mean (SD) 57.7 (9.4) 59.3 (9.3) p = 0.05
 Number of months since the index event, mean (SD) 16.8 (10.9) 18.9 (10.8) p = 0.05
 Female sex, n (%) 38 (22.8) 56 (24.3) p = 0.71
 Ethnic minority background, n (%) 4 (2.4) 10 (4.3) p = 0.30
 Living alone, n (%) 28 (16.8) 57 (24.8) p < 0.05
 Low education, n (%) 116 (69.5) 189 (82.2) p < 0.001
 Unemployed or on disability benefits, n (%) 33 (19.8) 85 (37.0) p < 0.001
Medical factors
 Duration of smoking, years, n (%)
   < 20 11 (6.6) 8 (3.5) p < 0.001
  20–39 99 (59.3) 64 (27.8)
   > 40 53 (31.7) 137 (59.6)
 ST-elevation infarction/non ST-elevation infarction and angina, n (%) 78 (46.7)/ 89 (53.3) 84 (36.5)/ 146 (63.5) p < 0.05
 More than 1 coronary event, n (%) 30 (18.0) 77 (33.5) p < 0.001
 Participation in cardiac rehabilitation, n (%) 95 (56.9) 103 (44.8) p < 0.05
 Charlson co-morbidity sum score, mean (SD) 3.8 (1.3) 4.0 (1.4) p = 0.14
 Use of antiplatelets at follow-up, n (%) 164 (98.2) 221 (96.1) p = 0.22
 Use of statins at follow-up, n (%) 160 (95.8) 207 (90.0) p < 0.05
 Low physical activityb, n (%) 93 (55.7) 186 (80.9) p < 0.001
 Body Mass Index >30 kg/m2, n (%) 61 (36.5) 58 (25.2) p < 0.05
 Low density lipoprotein cholesterol >1.8 mmol/l, n (%) 88 (52.7) 124 (53.9) p = 0.66
 Blood pressure > 140/90 (140/80 diabetes) mmHg, n (%) 60 (35.9) 74 (32.2) p = 0.74
 Diabetes, n (%) 16 (9.6) 36 (15.7) p = 0.08
Psychosocial factors
 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score - depression ≥11, n (%) 12 (7.2) 13 (5.7) p = 0.61
 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score - anxiety ≥11, n (%) 22 (13.2) 27 (11.7) p = 0.81
 Type D personality disorder, n (%) 41 (24.6) 56 (24.3) p = 0.89
 Worry score (PSWQc), mean (SD) 40.1 (13.9) 40.3 (13.9) p = 0.87
 Insomniad, n (%) 80 (47.9) 114 (49.6) p = 0.65
  1. a2–36 months after the index coronary event
  2. bPhysical activity less than 30 min of moderate activity 2–3 times weekly
  3. cWorry was assessed by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), a 16 item measure of pathological worry
  4. dMeasured by Bergen insomnia Scale