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Table 2 Sample characteristics (N = 4649)

From: Prehypertension and psychosocial risk factors among university students in ASEAN countries

Nutrition variables Normotensives Prehypertension Hypertension P-value
 Body Mass Index (BMI)
  Normal 1922 (75.6) 470 (18.5) 152 (6.0) <0.001
  Underweight 810 (81.1) 126 (12.6) 62 (6.2)  
  Overweight 330 (71.3) 101 (21.8) 32 (6.9)  
  Obese 307 (56.5) 171 (31.5) 65 (12.0)  
Usually eat salt 1175 (77.4) 252 (16.6) 91 (6.0) 0.002
Avoid foods containing fat and cholesterol 1241 (73.5) 316 (18.7) 11 (7.8) 0.102
Insufficient fruits and vegetables 2636 (75.2) 651 (18.6) 220 (6.3) 0.046
Soft drinks (once or more a week)1 682 (67.7) 232 (23.0) 94 (9.3) 0.003
Fast food (once or more a week)1 1240 (73.2) 338 (20.0) 115 (6.8) 0.006
Red meat at least once a day 1980 (75.0) 503 (19.0) 158 (6.0) 0.065
Chocolate or candya
 Never or rarely 926 (67.3) 311 (22.6) 139 (10.1) <0.001
 1–6 times a week 973 (75.0) 238 (18.3) 87 (6.7)  
 Once or more times a day 364 (75.4) 85 (17.6) 34 (7.0)  
Health behaviour
 Physical activity
  Low 1974 (75.1) 473 (18.0) 182 (6.9) 0.069
  Moderate 1462 (73.3) 409 (20.5) 124 (6.2)  
  High 469 (69.8) 160 (23.8) 43 (6.4)  
Current tobacco use 114 (65.9) 47 (27.2) 12 (6.9) 0.018
Heavy drinking at least monthly 199 (63.4) 95 (30.3) 20 (6.4) <0.001
 Sleep duration
  7–8 h 1572 (75.5) 370 (17.8) 140 (6.7) 0.385
  6 or less hours 1574 (73.2) 429 (20.0) 147 (6.8)  
  9 or more hours 294 (75.6) 73 (18.8) 22 (5.7)  
Psychosocial stress
 Depression (severe) 308 (64.3) 114 (23.8) 57 (11.9) <0.001
 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 812 (72.4) 230 (20.5) 79 (7.0) 0.312
Well-being and social support
 Life satisfaction
  Low 1918 (71.9) 545 (20.4) 204 (7.6) <0.001
  Medium 456 (71.3) 102 (20.4) 41 (8.2)  
  High 1174 (79.4) 237 (16.0) 68 (4.6)  
 Social support
  Low 1565 (71.6) 450 (20.6) 172 (7.9) <0.001
  High 1875 (76.6) 433 (17.7) 141 (5.8)  
  1. aNot assessed in Laos and Philippines