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Table 1 Sample characteristics (N = 4649)

From: Prehypertension and psychosocial risk factors among university students in ASEAN countries

Sociodemographics Normotensives Prehypertension Hypertension P-value
All 3451 (74.2) 885 (19.0) 313 (6.7)  
Age in years
 18–19 1193 (74.1) 200 (11.7) 117 (7.3) 0.448
 20–21 1294 (74.1) 330 (18.9) 123 (7.0)  
 22–30 964 (74.6) 255 (19.7) 73 (6.7)  
Gender
 Female 2453 (80.8) 422 (13.9) 161 (5.3) <0.001
 Male 997 (61.8) 463 (28.7) 152 (9.4)  
Economic family background
 Wealthy 1055 (74.4) 256 (18.1) 107 (7.5) 0.218
 Poor 2396 (74.2) 629 (19.5) 206 (6.4)  
Country income
 Upper middle income 1189 (65.4) 446 (24.5) 184 (10.1) <0.001
 Lower middle income 2262 (79.9) 439 (15,5) 129 (4.6)  
Country
 Indonesia (N = 231) 177 (76.6) 16 (11.3) 28 (12.1) <0.001
 Laos (N = 717) 550 (76.7) 139 (19.4) 28 (3.9)  
 Malaysia (N = 1019) 751 (73.7) 36 (11.5) 10 (3.2)  
 Myanmar (N = 314) 268 (85.4) 190 (18.6) 78 (7.7)  
 Philippines (N = 775) 638 (82.3) 112 (14.5) 25 (3.2)  
 Thailand (N = 800) 438 (54.8) 256 (32.8) 106 (13.3)  
 Vietnam (N = 793) 629 (79.3) 126 (15.9) 38 (4.8)  
Living arrangement
 Lives with parents/guardians 1017 (79.3) 206 (16.1) 53 (4.6) <0.001
 Live away from parents 2431 (72.3) 679 (20.2) 254 (7.6)