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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with effective ECV and ineffective ECV

From: Prediction of ineffective elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a retrospective multi-center patient cohort study

  Effective ECV (N = 1146) Ineffective ECV (N = 852) p
Age mean (median) years 64 (65) 63 (64) 0.01
Age > 75 years 176 (15.4) 117 (13.7) 0.06
Female 284 (24.8) 267 (31.3) <0.01
First AF episode 528 (46.1) 397 (46.6) 0.82
Prior cardioversion 532 (46.4) 380 (44.6) 0.61
CHA2DS2-VASc-score ≥2 655 (57.2) 468 (54.9) 0.34
Duration of AF disease ≤1 year 527 (53.2) 374 (51.7) 0.56
Age of index AF episode
  > 180 daysa 76 (6.6) 65 (7.6) 0.60
  < 30 daysa 215 (18.8) 175 (20.5) 0.60
Ventricular rate (/min)
  < 60/min 45 (4.6) 17 (2.3) 0.01
 median 87 (30) 87 (30) 0.37
Left atrial diameter (mm)b
 median 46 (9) 46 (8) 0.40
Ejection fraction (%)c
 median 54 (17) 53 (17) 0.03
 Prior AF ablation 41 (3.6) 72 (8.5) <0.01
 History of heart failure 173 (15.1) 150 (17.6) 0.14
 Hypertension 598 (52.2) 451 (52.9) 0.75
 History of CKD 59 (5.1) 54 (6.3) 0.28
 GFR <50 ml/mind 24 (4.1) 32 (7.1) 0.04
 Diabetes 171 (14.9) 115 (13.5) 0.40
 Prior stroke/TIA 76 (6.6) 55 (6.5) 0.93
 Coronary artery disease 179 (15.6) 115 (13.5) 0.20
 Pacemaker 105 (9.2) 82 (9.6) 0.76
Medication at discharge
 Beta blocker 946 (83.1) 720 (85.2) 0.22
 Digoxin 89 (7.8) 123 (14.6) <0.01
 Verapamil 10 (0.9) 10 (1.2) 0.51
 Any antiarrhythmic agente 163 (14.3) 158 (18.8) 0.01
 Flecainide 67 (5.9) 44 (5.2) 0.55
 Amiodarone 65 (5.7) 79 (9.4) 0.01
  1. Values in parentheses are % or interquartile range, AF atrial fibrillation, CKD chronic kidney disease, ECV elective cardioversion, GFR glomerular filtration rate, TIA transient ischemic attack
  2. adata is missing in 834 (41.7%) cases
  3. bdata is missing in 1194 (59.8%) cases
  4. cdata is missing in 1142 (57.2%) cases
  5. ddata is missing in 955 (47.8%) cases
  6. eAntiarrhythmic agents comprised flecainide, amiodarone, propafenone, quinidine or disopyramide and dronedarone