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Table 4 The detailed characteristics and clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) complications

From: Endomyocardial biopsy via the femoral access - still safe and valuable diagnostic tool

Patient Sex Age (years) NYHA Class on admission Diagnosis Type of complication TTE after EMB Symptoms of developing complication Method of complication treatment Recovery
1 Male 28 IV Myocarditis Tamponade 15 mm of fluid in pericardium Chest pain, sudden drop in blood pressure, tachycardia Immediate partial sternotomy, hematoma decompression and suturing of damaged right venticle II NYHA class at discharge
2 Female 49 IV Myxoma in the right ventricular outflow tract Tamponade 25 mm of fluid in pericardium Chest pain, sudden drop in blood pressure, tachycardia Immediate sternotomy, hematoma decompression, tumor removal Full
3 Male 32 II Pericardial effusion Pericardial effusion Up to 6 mm of fluid in pericardium Without symptoms Diuretics Full
4 Male 57 II EMB - a year after HTx Access site hematoma Without fluid/tricuspid insufficiency Puncture site pain Conservative Full
5 Female 49 II EMB −2 months after HTx Access site hematoma Without fluid/tricuspid insufficiency Puncture site pain Conservative Full
6 Male 60 I EMB – 3 years after HTx RCA-RV fistula Diastolic jet to the lumen of RV (the diagnosis was made on the basis of coronarography Asymptomatic Conservative -“watchful waiting” Full
  1. NYHA New York Heart Association, RCA right coronary artery, RV right ventricle