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Table 2 Economic burden of heart failure in South Korea in 2014

From: Prevalence and socio-economic burden of heart failure in an aging society of South Korea

  Per-capita cost, USD Total national cost, million USD
Perspectives Perspectives
Payer Society Payer Society
Total costs (direct and indirect costs) 868.2 (100.0 %) 1414.0 (100.0 %) 412.4 (100.0 %) 752.8 (100.0 %)
Direct costs   1347.8 (95.3 %)   640.2 (85.0 %)
 NHI-covered medical costs 868.2 (100.0 %) 868.2 (61.4 %) 412.4 (100.0 %) 412.4 (54.8 %)
  Inpatient services (including prescription drug costs) 463.3 (53.4 %) 463.3 (32.8 %) 220.1 (53.4 %) 220.1 (29.2 %)
  Outpatient services (including prescription drug costs) 404.9 (46.6 %) 404.9 (28.6 %) 192.3 (46.6 %) 192.3 (25.6 %)
  Prescription drug costsa 285.7 (32.9 %) 285.7 (20.2 %) 135.7 (32.9 %) 135.7 (18.0 %)
  Non-NHI-covered medical costs - 217.0 (15.3 %) - 103.1 (13.7 %)
  Non-medical costs - 262.5 (18.6 %) - 124.7 (16.6 %)
  Transportation costs   53.9 (3.8 %)   25.6 (3.4 %)
  Caregiver’s costs   208.7 (14.8 %)   99.1 (13.2 %)
 Indirect costs - 66.3 (4.7 %) - 112.6 (15.0 %)
  PL due to morbidity - 66.3 (4.7 %) - 31.5 (4.2 %)
  PL due to premature death - - - 81.1 (10.8 %)
  1. All costs were expressed in 2016 monetary value (1 USD = 1,150 Korean won)
  2. USD U.S. dollar, NHI National Health Insurance, PL productivity loss
  3. aPrescription drug costs were calculated as the sum of inpatient and outpatient prescription drug costs