Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of Controls and Peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients, with and without type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

From: Carotid arterial wall inflammation in peripheral artery disease is augmented by type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

  Control
n = 11
PAD all
n = 34
P value PAD only
n = 11
PAD-DM
n = 23
P value
PAD vs PAD-DM
PAD-NIDDM
n = 11
PAD-IDDM
n = 12
P value
NIDDM vs IDDM
Age, years 63 ± 3 64 ± 7 0.322 66 ± 6 63 ± 7 0.243 64 ± 7 63 ± 7 0.781
Gender,%male (n) 64 (7) 64 (21) 0.949 64 (7) 61 (14) 0,616 55 (6) 67 (8) 0.735
BMI, Kg/m2 26 ± 2 29 ± 4 <0.001 29 ± 4 29 ± 4 0,752 30 ± 5 29 ± 3 0.640
Smoking, % active 25 (3) 46 (15) <0.001 50 (5) 44 (10) 0.912 45 (5) 35 (6) 0.692
SBP 136 ± 6 155 ± 19 <0.001 151 ± 16 156 ± 21 0.436 151 ± 19 161 ± 22 0.281
DBP 81 ± 4 81 ± 10 0.886 82 ± 11 81 ± 9 0.785 82 ± 6 80 ± 11 0.526
TotChol, mmol/L 5.7 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 0.9 <0.001 4.8 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 0.9 0.097 4.2 ± 1.3 4.3 ± 0.4 0.807
 LDL, mmol/L 3.7 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.8 <0.001 2.9 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.8 0.109 2.4 ± 1.1 2.4 ± 0.5 0.952
 HDL, mmol/L 1.4 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.4 0.116 1.4 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.3 0.144 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.4 0.102
 TG, mmol/L 1.1 [0.7–1.5] 1.3 [0.9–2.0] 0.196 1.1 [0.8–2.1] 1.3 [1.0–2.1] 0.384 1.2 [1.1–1.6] 1.6 [0.9–2.6] 0.525
CRP, mg/dl 1.3 [0.9–2.1] 2.6 [1.4–5.7] 0.038 1.8 [1.4–2.7] 2.9 [1.4–6.4] 0.144 2.9 [1.9–8.1] 2.9 [0.7–6.2] 0.525
Leucocytes, 109/L 6.0 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 2.5 0.083 6.8 ± 2.2 7.7 ± 2.6 0.370 8.0 ± 2.4 7.6 ± 2.5 0.624
Diabetes n/a n/a n/a No Yes n/a Yes Yes n/a
 Glucose, mmol/L 5.3 ± 0.4 7.3 ± 2.5 <0.001 5.7 ± 0.4 8.0 ± 2.6 0.001 7.1 ± 1.4 8.9 ± 3.2 0.102
 Insulin, pmol/L n/a n/a n/a 89 [49–175] 103 [67–178] 0.464 85 [60–140] 174 [78–300] 0.122
 Hba1C          
  mmol/mol n/a n/a n/a 41 [38–49] 57 [48–82] <0.001 49 [43–57] 78 [57–85] 0.006
  % n/a n/a n/a 5.9 [5.6–6.6] 7.4 [6.5–9.7]   6.6 [6.1–7.4] 9.3 [7.4–9.9]  
 c-peptide, mmol/L n/a n/a n/a 560 [420–970] 670 [550–880] 0.621 800 [660–1110] 565 [355–790] 0.032
 HOMA-IR n/a n/a n/a 2.3 [1.3–6.0] 5.1 [3.0–10.4] 0.032 3.2 [2.9–5.4] 9.8 [5.0–16] 0.038
  1. Values are % (n), mean ± SD or median [IQR,] for skewed data. PAD indicates Peripheral artery disease. DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus). NIDDM non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, SDP diastolic blood pressure, TotChol total cholesterol, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, TG triglycerides, CRP c-reactive protein, HOMA-IR homeostatic model of insulin resistance