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Table 1 Characteristics of surgical patients in the Veterans Affairs health system by whether or not they receive pre-operative echocardiographya

From: Pre-operative echocardiography among patients with coronary artery disease in the United States Veterans Affairs healthcare system: A retrospective cohort study

  Patients with heart failure, valvular heart disease, recent myocardial infarction Patients without heart failure, valvular heart disease, recent myocardial infarction  
Echocardiogram in the 3 months prior to surgery Yes (N = 1,732) No (N = 4,307) Yes (N = 2,646) No (N = 17,956) P-Value
Demographics
 Age
  Years, Median (25th percentile-75th percentile) 67.0 (61.0–75.0) 67.0 (60.0–75.0) 65.0 (60.0–73.0) 64.0 (59.0–72.0) <0.001
  <60 339 (19.6) 968 (22.5) 601 (22.7) 4,949 (27.6) <0.001
  ≥60 1,393 (80.4) 3,339 (77.5) 2,045 (77.3) 13,007 (72.4)  
 Race
  Black 194 (11.5) 451 (10.8) 315 (12.3) 1,910 (11.0) 0.11
  Other 25 (1.5) 54 (1.3) 32 (1.3) 177 (1.0)  
  White 1,471 (87.0) 3,686 (88.0) 2,207 (86.4) 15,321 (88.0)  
 Gender
  Female 27 (1.6) 94 (2.2) 40 (1.5) 401 (2.2) 0.04
  Male 1,705 (98.4) 4,213 (97.8) 2,606 (98.5) 17,555 (97.8)  
Health status 
 Echocardiogram in the 3 to 12 Months Prior to Surgery
  No 1,105 (63.8) 2,318 (53.8) 2,254 (85.2) 14,561 (81.1) <0.001
  Yes 627 (36.2) 1,989 (46.2) 392 (14.8) 3,395 (18.9)  
 Myocardial infarction within 6 months
  No 997 (57.6) 2,465 (57.2) 2,646 (100.0) 17,956 (100.0) <0.001
  Yes 735 (42.4) 1,842 (42.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Heart failure hospitalization within 6 months
  No 1,108 (64.0) 3,115 (72.3) 2,646 (100.0) 17,956 (100.0) <0.001
  Yes 624 (36.0) 1,192 (27.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 History of heart failure
  No 784 (45.3) 2,381 (55.3) 1,974 (74.6) 15,444 (86.2) <0.001
  Yes 948 (54.7) 1,924 (44.7) 672 (25.4) 2,472 (13.8)  
 Valvular heart disease
  No 882 (50.9) 2,329 (54.1) 2,646 (100.0) 17,956 (100.0) <0.001
  Yes 850 (49.1) 1,978 (45.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Coronary artery stents
 None 918 (53.0) 2,231 (51.8) 1,905 (72.0) 12,764 (71.1) <0.001
  Bare metal stents 433 (25.0) 1,222 (28.4) 382 (14.4) 2,563 (14.3)  
  Drug-eluting stents 371 (21.4) 830 (19.3) 350 (13.2) 2,563 (14.3)  
  Both bare metal and drug-eluting stents 10 (0.6) 24 (0.6) 9 (0.3) 66 (0.4)  
 Diabetes
  None 1,031 (59.5) 2,830 (65.7) 1,723 (65.1) 12,360 (68.8) <0.001
  Non-insulin dependent 308 (17.8) 754 (17.5) 483 (18.3) 3,165 (17.6)  
  Insulin dependent 393 (22.7) 723 (16.8) 440 (16.6) 2,431 (13.5)  
 Peripheral vascular disease
  No 1,063 (61.4) 2,854 (66.3) 1,760 (66.5) 13,772 (76.7) <0.001
  Yes 669 (38.6) 1,453 (33.7) 886 (33.5) 4,184 (23.3)  
 Stroke
  No 1,681 (97.1) 4,230 (98.3) 2,544 (96.2) 17,673 (98.6) <0.001
  Yes 51 (2.9) 75 (1.7) 102 (3.9) 243 (1.4)  
 Hypertension
  No 117 (9.2) 277 (10.1) 196 (9.9) 1,772 (14.2) <0.001
  Yes 1,154 (90.8) 2,458 (89.9) 1,784 (90.1) 10,749 (85.9)  
 Coronary artery bypass grafting
  No 1,600 (92.4) 4,024 (93.4) 2,554 (96.5) 17,467 (97.3) <0.001
  Yes 132 (7.6) 283 (6.6) 92 (3.5) 489 (2.7)  
 Chronic kidney disease
  No 1,268 (73.2) 3,514 (81.6) 2,229 (84.2) 16,083 (89.6) <0.001
  Yes 464 (26.8) 793 (18.4) 417 (15.8) 1,873 (10.4)  
 Arrhythmia
  No 789 (45.6) 2,207 (51.2) 1,681 (63.5) 12,899 (71.8) <0.001
  Yes 943 (54.5) 2,100 (48.8) 965 (36.5) 5,057 (28.2)  
 Pacemaker
  No 1,686 (97.3) 4,225 (98.1) 2,618 (98.9) 17,828 (99.3) <0.001
  Yes 46 (2.7) 82 (1.9) 28 (1.1) 128 (0.7)  
 Cardioverter defibrillator
  No 1,697 (98.0) 4,235 (98.3) 2,629 (99.4) 17,870 (99.5) <0.001
  Yes 35 (2.0) 72 (1.7) 17 (0.6) 86 (0.5)  
Operative Characteristics
 Inpatient/Outpatient, n (%)
  Outpatient 456 (26.4) 1,536 (35.8) 751 (28.5) 8,092 (45.1) <0.001
  Inpatient 1,273 (73.6) 2,761 (64.3) 1,886 (71.5) 9,837 (54.9)  
 Work Relative Value Unit
  Median (25th percentile-75th percentile) 18.2 (11.8–22.6) 15.4 (9.6–21.8) 19.6 (11.8–23.3) 15.3 (8.4–21.8) <0.001
  <10 762 (44.0) 1,887 (43.8) 1,124 (42.5) 6,821 (38.0) <0.001
  10–20 372 (21.5) 1,177 (27.3) 514 (19.4) 5,847 (32.6)  
  >20 597 (34.5) 1,243 (28.9) 1,008 (38.1) 5,288 (29.5)  
 High Risk Surgery
  No 1,286 (74.3) 3,332 (77.4) 1,909 (72.2) 14,417 (80.3) <0.001
  Yes 446 (25.8) 975 (22.6) 737 (27.9) 3,539 (19.7)  
 Procedure Type
  Digestive 402 (23.2) 1,141 (26.5) 593 (22.4) 4,959 (27.6) <0.001
  Eye/Ear/Skin 31 (1.8) 85 (2.0) 38 (1.4) 299 (1.7)  
  Genital/Urinary 206 (11.9) 607 (14.1) 285 (10.8) 2,616 (14.6)  
  Musculoskeletal 272 (15.7) 828 (19.2) 475 (18.0) 4,465 (24.9)  
  Nervous 34 (2.0) 119 (2.8) 88 (3.3) 709 (4.0)  
  Other 50 (2.9) 102 (2.4) 78 (3.0) 422 (2.4)  
  Respiratory 82 (4.7) 146 (3.4) 156 (5.9) 509 (2.8)  
  Vascular 655 (37.8) 1,279 (29.7) 933 (35.3) 3,977 (22.2)  
 Time to Surgery Since Stent
  Days, Median (25th percentile-75th percentile) 132.0 (63.0–370.0) 184.0 (104.5–433.0) 347.0 (92.0–515.0) 406.0 (251.0–552.0)  
  None 100 (5.8) 130 (3.0) 79 (3.0) 173 (1.0) <0.001
  <6 Weeks 214 (12.4) 287 (6.7) 103 (3.9) 266 (1.5) <0.001
  6 Weeks to 3 Months 166 (9.6) 611 (14.2) 41 (1.6) 341 (1.9)  
  3 to 6 Months 123 (7.1) 389 (9.0) 169 (6.4) 1,405 (7.8)  
  6 to 12 Months 211 (12.2) 659 (15.3) 349 (13.2) 3,007 (16.8)  
  >12 Months 918 (53.0) 2,231 (51.8) 1,905 (72.0) 12,764 (71.1)  
  1. aNumbers in the table are median (25th percentile-75th percentile) or N (column %)