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Table 2 the “ABCD” assessment in the study population setting

From: Young smoker “ABCD” vascular assessment: a four-step ultrasound examination for detecting peripheral, extra and intra-cranial early arterial damage

ABCD PARAMETERS NON-SMOKERS SMOKERS p
(n = 43) (n = 38)
ABI 1.1 ± 0.05 1.1 ± 0.8 ns
BHI baseline (MCA) 1.5 (0.3) 1.2 (0.1) <0.01
BHI 1 min after smoking (MCA) nd 1 ± 0.2 nd
BHI 10 min after smoking (MCA) nd 1.1 ± 0.1 nd
C-IMT (mean, mm) 0.4 (0.06) 0.65 (0.09) <0.01
C-IMT (max, mm) 0.53 (0.01) 0.75 (0.5) <0.01
Diameter of the abdominal aorta (mm) 15 ± 2 15 ± 1 ns
  1. ABI ankle-brachial index; BHI breath holding index; MCA middle cerebral artery; CIMT carotid intima media thickness; nd, not done; ns, not significantly different
  2. Normally distributed continuous variables (ABI and Diameter of the abdominal aorta) are expressed as mean ± SD while non-normally distributed variables (BHI, C-IMT mean and max) are presented as median and interquartile range (IQR)