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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics and laboratory data

From: Association between the docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratio and acute coronary syndrome: a multicenter observational study

  All patients (n = 1733) High DHA/AA 0.903 (n = 867) Low DHA/AA <0.903 (n = 866) P-value
Age (years) 64.5 ± 11.3 67.1 ± 9.2 61.8 ± 12.5 <0.01a
Male 77.8 % 79.4 % 76.2 % 0.11
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.4 ± 3.5 24.4 ± 3.1 24.4 ± 3.8 0.97
Hypertension 73.1 % 75.7 % 70.6 % 0.01a
Diabetes mellitus 39.2 % 39.8 % 38.7 % 0.63
Dyslipidemia 70.4 % 70.6 % 70.2 % 0.86
Family history of ischemic heart disease 18.5 % 19.1 % 17.9 % 0.50
Smoking 45.1 % 47.6 % 42.5 % 0.03a
History of coronary revascularization (PCI or CABG) 27.7 % 26.8 % 28.6 % 0.38
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 190.7 ± 35.8 190.7 ± 34.2 190.7 ± 37.4 0.98
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 146.8 ± 95.5 155.4 ± 100.2 138.4 ± 90.1 <0.01a
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dl) 111.2 ± 30.8 111.1 ± 29.9 111.2 ± 31.8 0.94
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dl) 51.7 ± 16.5 50.0 ± 15.1 53.4 ± 17.6 <0.01a
Hemoglobin A1c (%) 6.3 ± 1.1 6.2 ± 0.9 6.3 ± 1.2 0.44
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.88 ± 0.29 0.88 ± 0.27 0.87 ± 0.31 0.41
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 68.7 ± 17.7 67.0 ± 16.4 70.2 ± 18.7 <0.01a
EPA (μg/dl) 73.9 ± 44.0 93.5 ± 47.9 54.2 ± 28.5 <0.01a
EPA/AA     <0.01a
 Mean 0.49 ± 0.30 0.66 ± 0.32 0.32 ± 0.17  
 Median 0.425 0.588 0.290  
DHA (μg/dl) 143.4 ± 52.8 170.9 ± 53.0 115.9 ± 35.3 <0.01a
DHA/AA     <0.01a
 Mean 0.95 ± 0.38 1.22 ± 0.36 0.68 ± 0.15  
 Median 0.903 1.143 0.706  
DGLA (μg/dl) 33.2 ± 12.3 30.8 ± 11.5 35.6 ± 12.6 <0.01a
AA (μg/dl) 157.4 ± 49.5 142.1 ± 33.8 172.8 ± 57.4 <0.01a
Statins 53.1 % 48.7 % 57.5 % <0.01a
Antiplatelet agents 62.7 % 67.5 % 58.0 % <0.01a
Renin angiotensin system inhibitor (ACE-I and ARB) 50.7 % 50.1 % 51.4 % 0.59
Calcium channel blockers 45.6 % 47.8 % 43.5 % 0.08
Beta blockers 38.6 % 39.6 % 37.6 % 0.43
Hypoglycemic agents 21.1 % 21.0 % 21.1 % 0.95
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation, or percentage, aindicates statistical signficance, PCI = Percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, EPA/AA eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratio, DHA/AA docosahexaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratio, DGLA dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker