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Table 2 Hazard ratios of characteristics associated with VKA initiation within 3 months following NVAF diagnosis

From: Long-term vitamin K antagonists treatment patterns of Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF): a population-based cohort study

  % Crude HR Adjusted HR (95 % CI)
Size, n 135,241   
Age
18-29 0.45 0.22 0.23 (0.15 - 0.36)
30-39 0.83 0.45 0.45 (0.36 - 0.58)
40-49 2.06 1.00 1.00 (Reference)
50-59 5.01 1.73 1.68 (1.51 - 1.87)
60-69 16.81 2.73 2.55 (2.31 - 2.82)
70-74 17.43 3.29 3.05 (2.77 - 3.36)
75-79 20.29 3.51 3.28 (2.97 - 3.61)
80-84 18.06 3.31 3.12 (2.83 - 3.44)
85-89 12.09 2.76 2.66 (2.41 - 2.94)
≥90 6.97 1.60 1.57 (1.41 - 1.74)
Male 47.90 1.02 1.09 (1.07 - 1.11)
Comorbidities
Hypertension 61.66 1.21 1.03 (1.01 - 1.05)
Myocardial infarction 20.64 0.94 0.89 (0.87 - 0.92)
Angina pectoris 20.02 0.94 0.88 (0.86 - 0.90)
Congestive heart failure 20.46 1.15 1.20 (1.18 - 1.23)
Prior stroke or TIA 8.62 1.22 1.25 (1.21 - 1.28)
Prior bleeding events
Intracranial bleeding 1.00 0.56 0.55 (0.49 - 0.61)
Gastrointestinal bleeding 5.75 0.65 0.67 (0.64 - 0.70)
Other bleeding 8.84 0.85 0.85 (0.83 - 0.88)
Diabetes 25.39 1.08 0.97 (0.95 - 0.99)
Hyperlipidemia 42.47 1.18 1.00 (0.95 - 1.05)
Vascular disease 12.12 0.94 0.87 (0.84 - 0.89)
Chronic renal failure 10.70 0.89 0.87 (0.84 - 0.90)
Complications of alcohol abuse 3.61 0.61 0.78 (0.73 - 0.83)
Liver disease 2.53 0.67 0.80 (0.75 - 0.85)
Cancer 19.58 0.79 0.76 (0.75 - 0.78)
Coagulation defects 1.81 0.75 0.88 (0.82 - 0.95)
Predisposition to falls 15.44 0.75 0.80 (0.78 - 0.83)
Dementia/schizophrenia 8.81 0.55 0.65 (0.63 - 0.68)
Venous thromboembolism 5.47 1.37 1.48 (1.43 - 1.53)
COPD 26.65 0.94 0.93 (0.91 - 0.95)
Medications
ACE 35.62 1.21 1.12 (1.10 - 1.15)
ARB 21.28 1.25 1.12 (1.09 - 1.14)
CCB 41.51 1.27 1.19 (1.16 - 1.21)
Diuretics 50.08 1.25 1.09 (1.07 - 1.12)
Antidepressants 19.44 0.84 0.91 (0.89 - 0.94)
Antipsychotics 5.81 0.61 0.83 (0.79 - 0.87)
NSAIDs 36.35 1.01 1.00 (0.98 - 1.02)
Statins 38.55 1.19 1.05 (1.00 - 1.10)
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, TIA transient ischemic attack, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs