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Table 4 Characteristics of included observational studies

From: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and heart failure in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies

Study Study design Data source Countries involved Funding Total number of patients Follow up (years) Male (n, %) Mean age (years) Mean BMI (kg/m2) Mean HbA1c (%) Mean FPG (mmol/L) Mean diabetes duration (years) CVD at baseline
Studies reporting heart failure
 NCT01060059 2013 [66] Prospective cohort study Real world data Italy Private for-profit funding 882 1 493 (55.9) 62.5 NR 8.9 NR NR NR
 Kannan 2015 [17]a Retrospective cohort study Electronic health records U.S. No funding 13,185 4b 7827 (54.6) 60.6 32.6c NR NR NR Included patients had no history of CVD or congestive heart failure at baseline
 Paul 2015 [18] Retrospective cohort study Claims data U.S. NR 39,225 3.5b 18093 (46.1) 58.2 35.3 7.9 NR 1.3 Included patients had CVD or no CVD at baseline
Studies reporting hospitalization for heart failure
 Yu 2015 [19]a Nested case–control study Electronic medical records UK Public funding 57,737 NA 32795 (56.8) 61.6 NR NR NR 2.3 Included patients had CVD or no CVD at baseline
  1. aThese two studies accessed incretin agents (both glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) and the risk of heart failure, so the data above were the characteristics of total patients included
  2. BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, CVD cardiovascular disease, NR not reported, NA not applicable
  3. bmedian follow-up (years); cMedian BMI (kg/m2)