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Table 3 Association between exertional leg symptoms and ABI-diagnosed PAD by of participants by their diabetes status

From: Peripheral artery disease and exertional leg symptoms in diabetes patients in Ghana

  Crude OR (95 % CI) p Adjusted OR* (95 % CI) p
All Participants     
Classic IC 1.59 (1.19–2.69) 0.047 1.51 (0.87–2.61) 0.139
Atypical exertional pain 0.54 (0.15–1.89) 0.331 0.32 (0.07–1.46) 0.148
Pain at rest 1.72 (1.21–3.04) 0.036 1.71 (1.13–2.17) 0.028
Diabetes Patients     
Classic IC 1.18 (0.64–2.19) 0.59 1.02 (0.54–1.94) 0.569
Atypical exertional pain 1.25 (0.21–7.56) 0.811 0.49 (0.05–4.93) 0.547
Pain at rest 0.89 (0.42–1.9) 0.771 0.89 (0.4–2) 0.769
Non-diabetes Participants     
Classic IC 2.56 (1.07–5.92) 0.039 3.39 (1.14–8.1) 0.028
Atypical exertional pain 0.37 (0.05–2.9) 0.358 0.31 (0.03–2.48) 0.266
Pain at rest 4.91 (1.93–12.49) 0.001 4.3 (1.58–9.67) 0.004
  1. IC, intermittent claudication; OR, odds ratio.
  2. *Adjusted for age, gender, diabetes status (in All participants group only), insulin use (in Diabetes group only), hypertension, BMI, waist-hip ratio, mean blood pressure, smoking status, second-hand smoking and alcohol status