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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by diabetes status

From: Estimating the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis of persons with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among Japanese urban workers and their families: a cross-sectional study

   Normal Prediabetes Diabetes
Sample size Men 7,202 2,001 678
Women 8,947 2,756 330
   mean ± SD
(t-value)
Age Men 43 ± 13 51 ± 10
(t = 28.11***)
56 ± 10
(t = 26.72***)
Women 44 ± 12 51 ± 9
(t = 27.54***)
55 ± 9
(t = 16.60***)
Systolic blood pressure Men 125 ± 14 131 ± 15
(t = 15.12***)
136 ± 18
(t = 18.53***)
Women 118 ± 15 125 ± 15
(t = 21.58***)
132 ± 18
(t = 16.43***)
Diastolic blood pressure Men 76 ± 11 81 ± 11
(t = 17.26***)
82 ± 11
(t = 14.03***)
Women 70 ± 10 73 ± 11
(t = 14.32***)
77 ± 12
(t = 11.19***)
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) Men 205 ± 35 215 ± 35
(t = 8.07***)
214 ± 37
(t = 4.54***)
Women 209 ± 37 225 ± 38
(t = 18.34***)
230 ± 40
(t = 9.21***)
HDL-C (mg/dl) Men 61 ± 17 60 ± 17
(t = 3.90***)
57 ± 18
(t = 5.81***)
Women 77 ± 18 75 ± 19
(t = 3.63***)
70 ± 18
(t = 6.66***)
Triglycerides
(mg/dl)
Men 129 ± 112 156 ± 139
(t = 8.96***)
170 ± 133
(t = 8.82***)
Women 78 ± 52 95 ± 56
(t = 14.18***)
121 ± 80
(t = 14.30***)
CAVI Men 7.43 ± 0.99 7.97 ± 0.96
(t = 21.28***)
8.49 ± 1.11
(t = 26.08***)
Women 7.24 ± 0.92 7.62 ± 0.89
(t = 18.93***)
8.09 ± 1.02
(t = 16.38***)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) Men 23.5 ± 3.2 24.6 ± 3.3
(t = 13.56***)
25.1 ± 3.9
(t = 12.46***)
Women 21.3 ± 3.0 22.5 ± 3.6
(t = 17.79***)
24.3 ± 4.2
(t = 17.53***)
   Prevalence (%)
(chi-square statistics)
Abnormally high CAVI score Men 12.8 18.5
2 = 43.41***)
30.4
2 = 157.25***)
Women 15.2 18.9
2 = 21.01***)
34.2
2 = 85.95***)
Drinkers Men 74.3 77.9
2 = 10.62**)
72.7
2 = 0.81)
Women 43.1 36.9
2 = 34.05***)
23.0
2 = 52.65***)
Ex-smokers Men 23.3 29.5
2 = 33.23***)
31.7
2 = 24.29***)
Women 9.4 7.6
2 = 35.23***)
9.1
2 = 10.24**)
Smokers Men 46.0 43.1
2 = 33.23***)
41.4
2 = 24.29***)
Women 12.8 9.4
2 = 35.23***)
7.0
2 = 10.24**)
  1. Note: Student’s t-tests and chi-square tests were conducted by comparing means and prevalence respectively between persons with normal status and persons with prediabetes or persons with diabetes
  2. p-value: *< 0.05, **< 0.01, ***< 0.001