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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of case patients with pneumonia and control patients

From: Statin use associated with a reduced risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in patients with myocardial infarction: a nested case-control study

   Controls Cases   
Variables   N (%) N (%) Crude OR (95 % CI) P
Sample size   10,726 (100.0) 2,686 (100.0)    
Female   3,280 (30.6) 824 (30.7)    
Age (y) Mean (± SD) 67.1 (±10.0) 67.1 (±10.0)    
CHADS2 score
 0 8,830 (82.3) 1,703 (63.4) 1.00 (Ref.)  
 1–2 1,695 (15.8) 838 (31.2) 3.33 (2.99–3.71) <0.001
  > 2 201 (1.9) 145 (5.4) 5.85 (5.03–6.79) <0.001
Comorbidities, yes (Ref. = No)
 Diabetes mellitus 800 (7.5) 552 (20.6) 3.33 (2.94–3.76) <0.001
 Hypertension 418 (3.9) 268 (10) 2.77 (2.36–3.26) <0.001
 Congestive heart failure 800 (7.5) 570 (21.2) 3.43 (3.04–3.87) <0.001
 Stroke 1,372 (12.8) 654 (24.3) 2.21 (1.98–2.45) <0.001
 Asthma 133 (1.2) 74 (2.8) 2.28 (1.70–3.04) <0.001
 COPD 246 (2.3) 196 (7.3) 3.43 (2.82–4.18) <0.001
 Chronic kidney disease 118 (1.1) 108 (4) 3.76 (2.88–4.91) <0.001
 Chronic liver disease 28 (0.3) 16 (0.6) 2.29 (1.23–4.22) 0.008
 Parkinson disease 20 (0.2) 8 (0.3) 1.60 (0.70–3.63) 0.260
 Dementia 49 (0.5) 24 (0.9) 1.96 (1.20–3.19) 0.007
Medication use, yes (Ref. = No)
 Antineoplastic drug 67 (0.6) 71 (2.6) 4.35 (3.10–6.10) <0.001
 PPI 1,127 (10.5) 665 (24.8) 2.86 (2.56–3.19) <0.001
 Steroid 1,756 (16.4) 736 (27.4) 1.96 (1.77–2.16) <0.001
 ACEI/ARB 5,983 (55.8) 1,674 (62.3) 1.33 (1.21–1.45) <0.001
 Antiviral drug 143 (1.3) 47 (1.7) 1.32 (0.95–1.84) 0.100
 Immunosuppressants 19 (0.2) 12 (0.4) 2.53 (1.22–5.20) 0.010
 Immuostimulants 7 (0.1) 8 (0.3) 5.01 (1.72–14.5) 0.003
 Nitrate 6,277 (58.5) 1,847 (68.8) 1.62 (1.47–1.78) <0.001
 Antiplatelet 9,151 (85.3) 2,330 (86.7) 1.13 (0.99–1.28) 0.050
 Vaccine (influenza or pneumococcal) 2,551 (23.8) 631 (22.8) 0.94 (0.85–1.05) 0.280
  1. ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockade, CHADS 2 congestive heart failure, hypertension, age > 75 years, diabetes, previous stroke, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OR odds ratio, PPI proton pump inhibitor, Ref reference group, SD standard deviation