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Table 2 Multivariable analysis of the association between earlobe crease and selected cardiovascular risk factors, CoLaus study, Lausanne, 2009–2012

From: Did Dumbo suffer a heart attack? independent association between earlobe crease and cardiovascular disease

Adjusted for Age and gender Age, gender and body mass index
Earlobe crease Absence (n = 3829) Presence (n = 806) P-value Absence (n = 3829) Presence (n = 806) P-value
BMI (kg/m2) 26.0 ± 0.1 27.0 ± 0.2 <0.001
Abdominal obesity 1 (ref.) 1.20 (1.02; 1.42) <0.05 1 (ref.) 0.85 (0.66; 1.09) 0.19
Smoking status
 Never
 Former 1 (ref.) 1.17 (0.98; 1.40) 0.08 1 (ref.) 1.15 (0.96; 1.37) 0.14
 Current 1 (ref.) 1.11 (0.89; 1.38) 0.34 1 (ref.) 1.16 (0.93; 1.45) 0.18
Blood pressure status
 SBP (mm Hg)a 126 ± 1 126 ± 1 0.43 126 ± 1 126 ± 1 0.89
 DBP (mm Hg)a 78 ± 1 79 ± 1 0.11 78 ± 1 78 ± 1 0.53
 Hypertension 1 (ref.) 1.41 (1.18; 1.67) <0.001 1 (ref.) 1.30 (1.08; 1.56) <0.01
Lipids (mmol/L)b
 Total cholesterol 5.70 ± 0.02 5.68 ± 0.04 0.69 5.70 ± 0.02 5.68 ± 0.04 0.53
 LDL cholesterol 3.45 ± 0.01 3.45 ± 0.03 0.94 3.45 ± 0.01 3.43 ± 0.03 0.57
 HDL cholesterol 1.64 ± 0.01 1.61 ± 0.02 0.05 1.64 ± 0.01 1.64 ± 0.01 0.93
 Triglycerides 1.36 ± 0.01 1.40 ± 0.03 0.05* 1.36 ± 0.01 1.36 ± 0.03 0.65*
Glycaemic status
 Glucose (mmol/L)c 5.88 ± 0.02 5.96 ± 0.04 0.06 5.88 ± 0.02 5.92 ± 0.04 0.36
 Insulin (μIU/mL)c 8.3 ± 0.1 8.8 ± 0.2 0.01* 8.3 ± 0.1 8.4 ± 0.2 0.78*
 HOMA-IRc 2.29 ± 0.04 2.47 ± 0.09 0.07 2.30 ± 0.04 2.33 ± 0.08 0.72
 Diabetes 1 (ref.) 1.43 (1.15; 1.79) <0.01 1 (ref.) 1.25 (0.99; 1.59) 0.07
 High HOMA-IR 1 (ref.) 1.19 (1.00; 1.42) <0.05 1 (ref.) 0.95 (0.78; 1.16) 0.62
Metabolic syndrome 1 (ref.) 1.28 (1.08; 1.51) <0.01 1 (ref.) 1.03 (0.84; 1.26) 0.79
  1. For quantitative variables, multivariable analyses were performed by ANOVA and the results are expressed as adjusted mean ± standard error. For categorical variables (excluding smoking), multivariable analyses were performed by logistic regression and results are expressed as odds ratio (95 % confidence interval). For smoking, multivariable analyses were performed using multivariate (polytomous) logistic regression and the results are expressed as relative risk ratio (95 % confidence interval)
  2. BMI body mass index; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; LDL low-density lipoprotein; HDL high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; high HOMA-IR is defined as a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6; abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are defined by the NCEP ATP-III criteria; hypertension is defined as SBP > 140 or DBP > 90 mm Hg or anti-hypertensive medication; diabetes is defined as fasting plasma glucose >7.0 mmol/L or antidiabetes medication
  3. *P-value calculated on log-transformed values
  4. a,adjusting for antihypertensive medication
  5. b,adjusting for hypolipidemic medication
  6. c,adjusting for antidiabetes medication